A highlight from Prof. Debby Silver, Associate Professor of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology at Duke University School of Medicine

Scientific Sense
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Thank you thank you for having me. Thanks doing this. So i went to start with one of your people whose dynamic 'em off old abdulkader translation ingredient jeter's developing rain. You saying the developing bringing new produced from of stem cell review is Yeah most people will actually refer to it as leah but in there is no right or wrong 'em some radio and you said radio glide progenitor spans that noodle it liam extending long based processes to flow n feet hundreds of micrometres So much so before we get into. The details are debbie. I want to get some sort of definitions for these things. So is the end of the iran What would make sure so. So the radio Are these are really fascinating. Amazing a neural precursors actually. So they're the cells that contain the end feet and these are the cells that will generate neurons than they were kinda historically observed to be To the elongated hence their name radio To bear features similar tikhonia glioma cells but What was subsequently found over over the years was that they they have several hutchins. One is to provide Almost a ladder by which new neurons can be Their way up into the brain And the other is to generate generate neurons and so these The fee structures that you were referring to are simply of the structures the very end these radio per janitors There are envied at both. The very bottom of of the cerebral court developing cerebral cortex. These are referred to as apolitical and fee and there are anfield at the very top referred to as basil and feet so They'd have produced some. They're just Active so the produce summit in debris and do the make from their site of production to someone else so that radio gli themselves are going to stand the cerebral cortex And so basically our brains have ventricles by during development with your quite large and these ventricles So the epoca. One part of the radio is going to be at the bottom when parts can be at the top and themselves at the stage is set at which they're making neurons. The radio do not migrate far but the neurons that they migrate that on. Excuse me the neurons that they produce do migrate Up in a basically go what's referred to as a radial pattern so it's as if they're moving from the very top bottom where the ventricle is located on all the way up into what is referred to as the critical plate. And you know this. Distance is going to vary depending upon the stage of development. You look at as well as the organism so It could be Several hundred micrometres by which they're migrating or even centimeters in a human brain. It's just a fascinating thing to think about. So all of this activity is programmatic It sorta happened right. it's You know it's not something That it's a some external force is doing it. It sought programmatic at the beginning. Yeah that's right. I mean there's a there's this somewhat stereotypical modes by which neurons will make their way into into this This part of the developing brain and we know Features that they have morphological we know about gene expression that is associated with migrating neurons but You know the what actually directed is still kind of Territory that that A lot of a lot of scientists are trying to understand and the extent to which this is preprogrammed versus whether these these neurons as they're migrating think another another perspective is that the neurons are migrating are encountering different millions if you will so they're encountering different cell types that themselves could help to redirect or direct dinner onto its proper location. Well yes so if it reach. Its intended location dan. That is going to some sort of some sort of disease right something that that could have long-term dunked yes correct. So there are a number of neurodevelopmental policies on that have been linked to deficits in the ability of these neurons to to find fair right Their final position There are disorders that are linked to to patients having intellectual disability As well as Admiral enough formations of the brain And so these can really vary a lot but neuronal migration is is really essential for for proper development of the brain and so there are a number of Diseases that are linked to it yet. Each specific the human brain or this happens in any non human adamant to. Yeah so that's a great question. I in fact My lab as well as many others takes advantage of model organisms to study this process In large part because many of these processes are highly conserved that is on neuronal. Migration has to occur in human brains as much as it has to occur in in human primates or even in mouse models. Which is what we happily study. And what's also quite fascinating as you can even reproduce some of these events By just simply regenerating tissue in a dish so there's now scientists who are taking Taking cells using them to make mini neuro speier structures. That are similar to have share features of developing brain. So there there is a lot of not only a lot of evolutionary conservation but there's that that just tells you how how important the event is that you're able to reconstruct it with the tissue in the human brain obviously is developing for a long time about early on the development is quite dramatic so the patterns here I guess two questions are they. Are they sort of measurable number. One number that measurable Could be actually use those patterns to predict some sort of disease

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