Could There Be a Fifth Fundamental Force?
The four fundamental forces are the most important quartet in science so far is anyone's been able to prove the universe is governed by these forces forces gravity electromagnetism the strong force and the weak force. But maybe this foursome isn't alone in two thousand fifteen. A Hungarian and team led by physicist Attila. Credit Hawkeye reportedly discovered new evidence for a fifth fundamental force. Something previously unknown to science. The the group uploaded another paper about the subject to archive a research database in October of two thousand nineteen while many scientists are skeptical about these findings. The research search does give us an occasion to talk about the major forces that we all take for granted the Fab four fundamental forces are irreducible meaning. They can't be broken down into other more basic forces. These are the core phenomena behind every other known type of physical interaction. For example friction tension and elasticity busy are all derived from electromagnetism. And what's that you ask. ELECTROMAGNETISM is a force that affects all positively and negatively charged particles articles those with opposite charges attract while ones carrying like charges. Repel each other. Not only does this principle. Keep magnets on your fridge. But it's also the reason why solid solid objects are able to retain their shapes compared with electromagnetism. Gravity is rather weak surprisingly enough. It's actually the weakest of the four fundamentals including including the so-called weak force. We'll get to that one in a bit. A gravity is the attraction of any two objects in the universe to another moons. Dust motes coyotes. Whatever ever everything exerts gravity on every other thing but at least one of the things in question has to be pretty massive in order for it to make much of a difference? That's why we you don't have dust mites orbiting our heads like asteroids and why we don't fall into orbit of coyotes when we encounter them but let's turn to the appropriately named strong force course. This is what hold Tomic nucleus together. Even in spite of their charged protons which are constantly trying to escape and last but not least. There's the Weak Force Aka. The weak interaction. This one is the hardest to explain and honestly I'm not an expert here but it's the force by which which subatomic particles can transform by decaying into different particles by losing boasts on which disintegrates into positron and or neutrinos this week force force fuel certain kinds of radioactive decay which means it's responsible for everything from medical imaging to the radiometric dating that researchers use to determine the ages of fossils thousand artifacts to the nuclear fission that occurs in the sun. So kind of a big deal. Scientists have a theory that nicely describes three of those forces known these standard model of physics. It's made up of various measurements and mathematical formulas. It also breaks down. Elementary particles into categories is an subcategories. We spoke by email with mit physicist. Richard Milner he explained. The Standard Model of physics is the present framework for describing describing the subatomic world at all energies. It was developed post World War to end. I count at Least Eighteen Nobel prizes in physics since nineteen fifty that have been awarded for contributions tribulations to its development alike all good theories. The Standard Model has accurately predicted numerous scientific breakthroughs including the discovery of the elusive higgs. Boson particle back in two thousand twelve yet. It doesn't answer every question. The Standard Model offers no explanation for gravity and it hasn't brought scientists any closer to understanding dark matter a mysterious ingredient that makes up about twenty seven percent of our universe. Here's where crossing a Hawkeye and company. Come in during a twenty fifteen experiment at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Institute for Nuclear Research They watched excited brilliant eight atoms decay inside a particle Michael Accelerator normally this process releases light which is later converted into electrons and positron are a type of Subatomic particle with a positive charge. And sure enough. That's what happened but then things got interesting. Normally brilliant eight decays predictable fashion yet. A weirdly Lee high number of these electrons and positron repelled each other at a one hundred and forty degree angle to explain the surplus crasner. Hawkeye's team argued that a never before seen particle had been formed as the atoms decayed by their calculations this theoretical subatomic body would have a massive around seventeen million electron-volts on volts. They went ahead and named the x seventeen particle and now ex seventeen is again making the news. Recently the same Hungarian Carrion scientists detected an anomaly indicates samples of helium four according to their archive paper. An unforeseen surplus of positron and electrons were released. Possibly because another seventeen particle was created. If this mystery particle exists. It might be something very special. Maybe just maybe it's a newfound carrier boasts on both sides are spinning particles that probably lack internal structure their known to carry forces making them an integral part of the standard model under the standard model. Milner Explains Forces take place by exchange of the carrier Bussan's between other subatomic particles articles. It's said each of the four fundamental forces has its own corresponding boasts on the one that transports gravity hasn't been found yet but the carrier bones associated it was strong force. Weak force electromagnetism are well documented. Presumably at seventeen would be the Kargbo sound for a fifth fundamental force that we never knew existed listed and perhaps said force is somehow related to dark matter but or getting ahead of ourselves. There's no hard proof that x seventeen exists. It's in the first place. The European Organization for Nuclear Research better known as sern has yet to find any trace of the particle and the new archive paper is still awaiting peer review and replication from other scientists milner and his colleagues have devised a proposal to try to generate seventeen particles in a scattering experiment at the Thomas. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News Virginia at present the standard model does account for any new fundamental forces. So if the x seventeen and the fifth force that allegedly carries a real we'll have to modify the good old standard model at any rate. It's clear the Potomac world is still rife with