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Can use is called inclination angle. And that's the angle at which magnetic field lines intersect the surface of the earth. And so they are steeper toward the pools and shallower at the equator and both of these components predict are variably are predictably variable across the surface of the globe. It's super convenient because these gradients of intensity and inclination angles aren't parallel former type of by coordinate grid over much of the earth. And so animals can actually derive both latitude and longitude along information from the magnetic field today, they have little magnets in their bodies. That can do that. The mechanisms behind magneto reception are still unclear but one of the leading hypotheses is that salmon and other species. Have tiny chains of magnetized? And that is an iron oxide mineral that has magnetic properties. And so the chains of mango tight are associated with nerve cells. And the thought is that the chains can be pulled by or strengthening field, and so changes in both fields shrinks, and or the inclination angle can result in action potentials, so they've made extra measures are thought to be found in the nose and also the lateral line. So along the sides of the body of a fish, but the monitor receptor itself is still elusive. Now, why why is it important to you? Why is it? Why does it matter that they can still detect these fields? Well, it's a rather. Interesting question that we wanted to know whether landlocked numbers of species that could go to the ocean, retain, a maps in just a point of curiosity and. We also wanted to know. If Atlantic salmon also possesses abilities, another group of individuals that possess magnetic naps at a diverse amount amount of species. But we also wanted to know what happens when you test animals in novel sort of magnetic environments. One can even detect a magnetic field. But to can they actually differentiate between those fields and three how did they actually respond? And so how did you go about testing these fish? So the aches from the individuals at the lake and Oregon were transported to the Oregon hatchery research center where they were reared in subsequently tested. And so we tested these individuals using a series of magnetic coils, and essentially it's a series of wooden frames that are wrapped in copper wire. And when you're tach copper wires to an electrical power supply and crank electric current through the magnetic coil a byproduct of that electricity is a magnetic field, and the really cool part about our coils is that allows us to alter the direction and also the amperage of current in order to allow us to simulate magnetic fields from almost anywhere on earth. So what you're doing? I know from my basic physics, you know, great schools have if I take a magnetized object and put it next to some mentally will magnetized metal in a certain direction. So that sounds to me basically, what you're doing to the Fisher, your magnetized them setting their magnetic structures up to to know where they are in a certain direction. Yes. So we're presenting them with magnetic fields, essentially that hopefully interact with what we think are these tiny chains of nine tight, right? That somehow connect with the nerve cells. Right. And and so how did the fish respond to this? So we evaluate the movement especially event by centering the fish in the coil. So there's a a platform with a bunch of testing arenas. We have one fish per arena. And then we have cameras that are mounted above those testing arenas to give us a bird's. Eye view of the test subjects during the trials. So what does means is that we are generating thousands of photos of our fish? And so we take photos, and we assess the position of the fishes head relative to magnetic north. Wow. That's terrific. And, you know, do do you know, how good the resolution? They have is. I mean, how just how accurate they can be to these magnetic fields. That is a question for future research. So we don't know the how fine or coarse scale to those map says. Yeah. So what? So speaking of looking forward. What would you like to do what kind of other experiments our equipment would you like to have to test? These fish again. We have a whole number of experiments that we have talked about over the years. But one of the experiments would be to actually look at main magnetic resolution of those maps. So having a series of points, moving them, closer and closer together. And to see how fine or coarse scale their responses actually are. So could you save endangered salmon then by knowing some more about them? I mean, always helps no more information about a species that you're trying to conserve. Knowing how they're making movement decisions would certainly be helpful and probably a tool in salmon conservation. But certainly not the only thing that we can. Preserve them. Yeah. Well, good luck to you and your future experiments. All right. Thank you very much. Michelle Scanlan is a faculty research assistant department of fisheries involved life and Oregon state university in Corvallis. And she was the lead researcher in an article appearing in the proceedings of the National Academy of sciences. In the late two thousand rapper known as prodigy released a song called you can never feel my pain.