How Does Venus Work?

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After the moon the Venus is the second brightest natural object in the night sky partially because this planet is covered by reflective clouds that make it is an optical telescopes can't penetrate eight with the Venetian surface hidden from view generations of fiction writers used to speculate wild about the mysterious terrain beneath those clouds for example Tarzan Creator Edgar Rice burroughs portrayed Venus as a world with lush forests in our boreal cities in a nineteen eighty-four pulp novel but then science intervened B eight at Venus's habitable pretty much imploded during the Cold War in Nineteen fifty-six Radio Telescope observations showed that the planet had surfaced temperatures in excess of six hundred and eight eighteen degrees Fahrenheit that's three hundred twenty six degrees Celsius and believe it or not those readings were kind of low we now know the average surface temperature on Nisa blistering eight hundred sixty four degrees Fahrenheit or four hundred sixty two Celsius it's the hottest planet in our solar system even though mercury is closer to the Sun on the face of Venus the atmospheric pressure is crushingly extreme and lead would melt into a puddle but as hellish as this place sounds actually has in common with Earth the two worlds are quite similar in size if you were to stuff venus inside our planet matric doll style it would occupy roughly eighty six percent end of earth total volume Venus has earth beaten in some key regards though earth displays a slight midsection bulge being wider around its equator than it is from one pole to the other conversely Venus is almost a perfect sphere what gives well when a massive celestial body like a star or planet spins quickly around its axis centrifugal force will give it a more dramatic bulge around its equator however Venus has an ultra slow rotation speed it takes the equivalent of two hundred and forty-three earth days for Venus to complete one full rotation around its axis and only two hundred twenty five earth days to finish a new lap around the Sun so in other words a day on Venus lasts longer than Vanesian year does and get this from our self centered perspective Venus spins backward word most of the planets in the solar system rotate from west to east Uranus and Venus Buck that trend on those two worlds the sun appears to rise in the West and set in the East nobody knows how that came to pass. Astronomers think Venus us to move in a counterclockwise direction like Earth but at some point it's been I have reversed alternatively perhaps the sun's Gravitational influence or a collision with a large object caused the entire planet to flip upside down in December of nineteen sixty two Venus became the first planet to get a fly by visit from a manmade spacecraft exploiting brief window of opportunity NASA's Mariner two probes studied this world up close from distances as near as twenty one thousand miles that's about thirty four thousand kilometers onboard instruments taught us a great deal mariner two firms that Venus does not have an earth like magnetic field and it recorded surface temperatures within the expected range a young Carl Sagan helped design the mariner to probe yes successfully lobbied to have the space craft fitted with a camera because close up pictures of Venus might quote answer questions that we were too dumb to even pose by the time Mariner to launched scientists already knew that there were high levels of carbon dioxide in the vision atmosphere and that composition should give us pause carbon dockside makes up a whopping ninety six percent of Venus's atmosphere scientists attribute this to a runaway greenhouse effect theoretically the planet used to have a more temperate climate that could have remained stable for billions of years back then oceans of liquid water may have covered its surface though we don't know for sure things changed as are growing son became hotter any oceans would have evaporated during this time astronomers think much of the carbon dioxide invasion rocks leached out and traveled guy word while the atmosphere changed it got better at trapping heat creating a vicious cycle that worsens the problem inevitably temperatures spiked and stayed since our own planet has a major greenhouse gas problem Venus could offer us important insights regarding climate change but sending probes to explore it has always presented major challenges on Venus the surface gravity is comparable to what you and I experience on earth what's not comparable is that atmospheric Asher which is ninety two times greater on the face of Venus than it is here faced with extreme temperatures and high pressure it's no wonder that manmade objects don't last long long in the planet's environment when the Soviet venire thirteen probe landed on Venus in Nineteen eighty-two it stayed intact for record setting one hundred and twenty seven minutes before it was destroyed mind you this wasn't the USSR's first Rodeo previous Venero spacecraft's successfully visited the planet's atmosphere and touched down on its outer crest brief though their visits were these probes captured the first ever photographs of the Venetian surface Nasr's Magellan spacecraft provided further insights has it mapped ninety eight percent of the planet's face all in all Venus boasts more than sixteen thousand volcanoes and volcanic features but we don't know of any these are still active highland plateaus deep canyons and meteorite impact craters have also been discovered there although Venus's about four point six billion years old crest is thought to be much younger with an estimated age of just three hundred to six hundred million years Venus lacks tectonic plates as we know them on earth nonetheless Sunday August think that upwelling magma occasionally recycle sections of the crust long before it was an object scientific study or of Edgar Rice burroughs. goals Venus mesmerized our ancestors bright and beautiful the cloud adorned planet derives its name from the Roman Goddess of love into mathematicians mapped it's progress across the sky and Galileo took detailed notes about its moon like phases somehow knowing that Venus is a stifling hot house doesn't diminish its allure with every new discovery inspires curiosity aw

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