NAD+, Nicotinamide Riboside, and Nicotinamide Mononucleotide with Rhonda Patrick
I'm going to talk about a molecule that has become in recent eight years extremely relevant to the field of aging specifically. I'm referring to any D. plus which I will refer to. As N de for short and some of the related precursor molecules kills Nicotinamide riboside often referred to as an R. and nicotinamide mononucleosis tired often referred to as an these two precursor sir molecules are called an boosters which can both be found as consumer available supplements. Just in case. You've never heard of any. It's probably one of the most important molecules accuweather on the planet so important in fact that without it life would cease to exist to NATO boosters nicotinamide said nicotinamide mono nuclear tied at very high doses. This is an animal. Studies have both been shown to improve the way multiple tissues and cell types age including skeletal and heart muscle brain and stem cells. There have also I've been to preliminary clinical trials in humans showing nicotinamide riboside may raise energy levels in white blood cells. which is pretty darn cool however I still? I think there are many open questions that need to be answered regarding. Ad Boosters and I will touch on some of these concerns in this episode but the possibility that intracellular NASD may be increased from a supplement or several types of supplements is awfully interesting if not downright exciting for one. Simple reason energy levels decrease with age and a decrease in energy eighty levels across a variety of types of tissues is associated with many and naming many hallmarks of aging these hallmarks of aging that are associated with age related plated changes in the pool either directly or indirectly include things. Like loss of Proto. Stasis Might conroe Dysfunction Glucose Intolerance Insulin Insulin Resistance Cellular senescence altered epigenetics and more this is partly because the availability of promotes. DNA repair capacity while its decline is associated associated with the accumulation of DNA damaging reactive oxygen species another reason is because Nada's required for energy production so when energy levels decline as they do with age this results in less energy production in many tissues like the brain immune cells muscle etc.. That means those organs do not work as well as they once insted. During youth. When energy levels were maintained? Any ideas also required for the activation of a very important family of enzymes involved in longevity called Sir Tunes and the complete answer to why energy levels fall with age is still an open question. But there's a few things we do know. As we age chronic inflammation and immune activation two processes that consume NASD tend to go up and with them our need for DNA repair placing an immense demand on our energy pool. Meanwhile while our ability to produce and recycle tends to fall with age we're GONNA cover a lot of ground in this episode but I wanNA start with an overview of any D- Any any deal has a very important role in energy metabolism and can be synthesized in the body from a variety of dietary sources including the amino acid trip to fan which which is in tons of healthy foods like salmon spinach and nuts and the three forms of niacin which is vitamin B.. Three also found in foods like lean meats legumes veggies edges these three forms of vitamin B.. Three include nicotinamide also called Niacin nicotinic acid and nicotinamide riboside they are commonly referred to as Nice in equivalents but dietary sources of energy are not the major source of any D. The major source of energy is through a recycling mechanism that we will discuss later. The reason for that is because our organs require such large quantities of that it would be impossible to consume enough from our diet. So why why do we require such large quantities of any first and foremost energy plays a critical role in energy metabolism critical. Meaning without it. You can't make energy entity participates in back and forth processes of reduction and oxidation often referred to as Reebok's reactions these alternating conversions of NFC's oxidized form which Canady to its reduced form. An Age are crucial for the metabolism of glucose and fatty acids and the formation of ATP. Since both the oxidized is in reduced forms of amd are essential for these linked sets of reactions cells need to maintain massive concentrations of both and a D. and an age basically without these molecules. Not only would we cease to exist but life on our planet would cease to exist and it is also a cofactor for many different important enzymes in this context a cofactor means something that is required for an enzyme to work at has to bind to the enzyme and this activates the enzyme so it can performance function so. Let's talk about a few of these enzymes. Several these NATO required enzymes are inside the Mitochondria and this is another way and participates in the generation of energy aside from itself being a type of energetic currency it also acts as a cofactor for enzymes involved in the production of energy from glucose outside of the minor Qendra this is referred or to as glycolysis many types of cells us look like Hollis's as their primary source of energy. For example. Red Blood cells do not have any medical Andrea so one hundred percent of the energy. They require to perform their function of delivering oxygen and other goodies to other tissues in the body comes from glycolysis and plays a very important role in mitigating DNA. A damage you need repair damage to DNA. That is because any cofactor for one of the most important enzymes involved. In repairing DNA damage called part one the activation of part one requires an enormous amount of any D for example excessive DNA damage in subsequent one activation have been shown to decrease energy levels to twenty to thirty percent of its normal levels. The ability to repair DNA damage is important for longevity. LYMPHOBLASTIC cell lines established from blood samples of humans who were centenarians. One hundred years or older have significantly higher part one activity than cell lines established from younger individuals. That are seventy years old part. One activity has also been correlated with maximum lifespan. In mammals the higher the part one activity the longer lifespan. For example the activity of part one one was measured across multiple Mammalian species and the difference in powerpoint activity between the longest lived mammals tested which were humans and the shortest lived mammals tested. which were rats? It's was fivefold so not too much of a surprise but genomic stability which relies on energy in general and pop ones specifically maybe very important morton longevity is required to activate signaling proteins knowns or two which are highly conserved enzymes play roles in health span and longevity in multiple organisms uh-huh so to ends are linked to the regulation of variety of metabolic processes like the response to stress and the modulation of lifespan. The way they do this is through EPA genetic regulation so twins utilize ad to remove specific chemical structures called seal groups.