The Year Without a Summer

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The heat of summer is well and truly here in the Northern Hemisphere, the hot humid days just won't let up and living in new. York City I continue to be frustrated that central air conditioning is not as ubiquitous in homes and businesses, as it is in most parts of the southern United States where I grew up. Then, of course, it's always been substantially hotter in those southern states, although with climate change, the northeast is heating up more and more, but that does make me think sometimes. How the heck did people survive before? Joining especially in those very hot climates, farmers ALMANAC A few insights nothing to mind blowing people would take day trips to swing holes or up. To cooler weather, they kept windows and doors shut at midday to keep out hot air and delayed cooking or baking. Until the evening they ate refreshing. Cool treats and was available in homes, blue fans across blocks of ice, the biggest factor most likely however was it simply wasn't as hot as it is now at least in terms of extremes, quoting farmers, Almanac, the extra ordinarily hot summers that are commonplace today were virtually unheard of fifty to one hundred years ago in fact, seven of the top ten coolest, US summers on record occurred nineteen, hundred and nineteen fifty and quotes. There was one year however over two centuries ago now that it was a lot cooler. Eighteen Sixteen Aka the year without a summer quoting farmers. ALMANAC referred to by many names, including the poverty year and eighteen hundred and froze to death, the year eighteen sixteen was literally a year without a summer across much of the northern hemisphere throughout not only North America, but also northern Europe and parts of Asia in exceptionally cold summer, featuring killing frosts in July in August crippled food production crop failures in food shortages were. Were so widespread that rioting and looting became common in the United Kingdom and France on this side of the Atlantic. Many residents of New England and the Canadian Maritimes froze to death, starved, or suffered from severe malnutrition, as storms, bringing foot, or more of snow, hit hard during May and June. Many others from the region pulled up stakes and move to western New York in the Mid West where the cold was less severe. In fact, the year without a summer is now believed to have been one major catalyst in the westward expansion of the United States and quotes Nicole may have been less severe in the southern and Western us, but it was still highly unusual on July fourth eighteen sixteen. It was forty six degrees Fahrenheit in Savannah Georgia. For the record this year on July fourth and Savannah, it was ninety degrees. So. Why did this happen? It was due to one of the largest volcanic eruptions in recorded history Indonesia's Tamboura. The volcano erupted on April Fifth Eighteen fifteen, continuing to up for a week and killing nearly all of the twelve thousand residents of Tim, Bora as well as almost all plants in animal life on the island, quoting the Paris review, countless tons of volcanic. Volcanic ash circulated in the upper atmosphere for years after the events blocked out sunlight and lowering average surface temperatures globally in parts, of North, America Europe temperatures dropped by more than eighteen degrees. Fahrenheit there was snow in New England July and dark rain clouds swept over Europe throughout the summer months in Hungary reports of Brown snowfall, tainted by volcanic ash and quotes. Understandably many thought the world was ending that the sun was dying. It's really fascinating. Though is some of the cultural ripples that this massive event caused. You may be familiar with the story of how Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley was inspired to write Frankenstein as part of a spooky storytelling challenge when she percy shelley and Lord Byron and friends were holed up in a villa in Geneva. One stormy summer turns out. It was this dark, thunderous apocalyptic. Apocalyptic summer of eighteen sixteen. The crew had gone to Geneva, both to ride out the unusually rainy summer, but also to escape their various dramas in England, being stuck indoors for so much of their trip Lord. Byron challenged them all to write ghost stories to entertain one. Another Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein which would set the stage for all of science fiction to come? Also among the Geneva Villa guests was Lord Byron's personal physician Dr John Polidori. Who wrote short story for the challenge called the vampire, and this story is often credited with the birth of the Modern Vampire Romance. But those genre defining publications aren't the only cultural institutions to come out of the summer last year of Eighteen, sixteen among the mini shortages across Europe was a crucial shortage of oats which led to the starvation and deaths of countless humans and livestock, including at least ten thousand horses, not counting how many were also slaughtered to save money or become dinner German? Baron Carl Dreyer's and inventor in student of mathematics started trying to design a man powered form of transportation, while historians agree that he was inspired by the weather based os shortage. He also saw a need for an alternative to horses as crucial for war. Quoting the Paris review his first designs for human powered transportation involved complex conveyor belt, driven four wheeled vehicles, but raises breakthrough came when he turned his thoughts to balance drawing on his experiences, skating on ice ponds drains, put his faith in the power momentum and front wheel, steering to keep a two wheel vehicle rate. This idea became his love, machine or running machine and quotes, and this running machine would become the modern day bicycle. All of this makes me think about how many things will change or be invented from this moment that we're living through. And of course there's a lot of things we're already seen, and we're likely to continue to see some big cultural shift, but like who, out there is writing the next genre defining novel that people will still be reading two centuries later. Who's inventing something that will be innovated on for decades before becoming a ubiquitous ordinary mode of transportation. Maybe won't be those types of things specifically, but there are surely ideas happening and things being created that we won't realize the impact of for decades

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