Maya Wiley, Jeff Legos, Andrea discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing
Today we're hearing from to vardis leaders. Who work as part of the global drug development organization under john. Cy from whom we've heard from before. Jeff legos is the global head of oncology development at novartis andrew myers is global program head for lung cancer at novartis jeff. Andrea are with us to share some of their extraordinary insights into the process and progress of identifying and treating lung cancer and improving outcomes for patients that are affected. How of approaches for treating lung cancer evolved over the years and how is our understanding of the disease in our ability to treat patients also advanced and gm myers. I would really say there have been several stages of our understanding a lung cancer. All kind of coming down to this notion of really. What cancer is which are cells. That are growing when they shouldn't be and where they shouldn't be and our very first medicines for lung. Cancer really focused around chemotherapy. Which are medicines that really target cells that are growing faster than other cells in the body and in fact chemotherapy can be quite effective for lung cancer and can result in some benefits for patients but over time we recognized that the cells lung cancer actually sometimes grow for different reasons. Not all of them are growing because of the same reasons. Some of them have proteins that change caused them to grow and we recognize this and there were very specific. Medicines than have been developed for these very specific changes so such names would be far which can be activated and caused lung cancer to grow or alc- can also be activated and caused cancer to grow. And we now have medicines. That are very focused on these very specific ways that lung cancer can be grown so that step really allowed us to see that lung. Cancer is not just one cancer. It's actually multiple types of cancer with different reasons that it can grow and then the third evolution that really has happened has been the recognition. The cancer can have means to hide from the immune system and our normal immune system can help to attack cancer but the cancer can have means to hide from this particular line of threat and new medicines called checkpoint. Inhibitors have really allowed lung. Cancers to now be seen by the body in further augment the ability of the body to fight the cancer andrew mirus global program head of lung cancer at novartis and enduring commitment for more than a quarter of a century. Novartis reimagining back with the briefing monaco. Twenty four now new yorkers will head to the polls today in the city's first ranked choice merrill election the fiercely contested democratic primary is being closely watched as it will likely determine who will lead america's largest city out of a harrowing year of pandemic induced lockdowns. Let's get the latest on this with our new york correspondent. Henry reese sheridan who joins us now from the big apple henry. Good morning to you. Good morning tom. Thank you very much for having me very good. Speak with you again. It's been a while set the scene. Where are you. What are you doing a cup of coffee on the guy. what are you wearing. For example you will the personal seen rather than the the political scene picture with your words henry. Us of about one sixteenth of glass of coffee left by one sixteen to the coffee in the glass left. Not one sixteenth of the glass yet and seeing here wearing clothes. I describe as normal. I think that that does enough. Let's jump into this really really fascinating stuff. I mentioned this ranked choice elections really interesting In terms of what that means and how that's going to manifest the decision making at the ballot boxes. Tell us a little bit. What have been the kind of the main themes as the final days of campaigning have been taking alone. I'll begin by introducing you to the front running candidates the way shaken out in these final days. So four real contenders. There's eric adams who is the brooklyn borough president. There's kathryn garcia. Who's a former sanitation commissioner. Maya wiley who who's a former counsel to the current mayor bill de blasio and there's andrew yang who is a former businessman and democratic presidential candidate. Now for a long time the majority actually if the official compaign adams and yang have led the pack and according to an episode poll. That came out yesterday that still the case but the race has tightened significantly so adams is the first choice of twenty eight percent of democratic voters. And i'm going to explain why i'm using the terms first-choice hopefully if you give them the chance he's followed by andrew yang at twenty percent. Kathryn garcia has fifteen percent and maya wiley has thirteen percent. So it's a fairly tight race now. The poll shows adams eventually beating young fifty six to forty four percent in the seventh round of a ranked choice voting simulation and they were nasty. Words exchanged between young adams yesterday. But that is probably best explained in the context of of this of this ranked choice voting system. Well yeah obviously. I was going to ask you about The the first time. I i'm right in saying that. That's been used in a democratic primary and in essence. Henry mean it means that you number your preference preference of states in a descending order one through five and you continue down if nobody wins fifteen outright. Then you look at the second choices if no one's out right third and so and so forth do do we know how that is going to change up the stretchy. 'cause i gather we've already seen certain candidates trying to band together gang up on one another in order to sort of play the ranked choice system to their advantage. It's a complicated picture right. And that banding together is actually one of the Intended effects in a way at least an indirect intended effect of the ranked choice voting system because basically by making elections less zero sum compared to first past the post systems by reducing the number of votes which are wasted because they're simply not counted it ranked choice voting is mentor reduce nastiness between candidates and encourage collaboration..