Oliver Cromwell, King Charles, Parliament discussed on GONE



Listener discretion is advised. This episode includes discussions of murder, dismemberment, and the desecration of corpses. Some people may find the material offensive. Listener discretion is strongly suggested for children under thirteen. Being laid to rest cultures all around the world, share similar notions of honoring and burying the dead. Generally mourners prepare and cleaned the body dress it in fine clothing or trappings and grieve over it before finally putting them to wrist. Some corpses are cremated while others are buried deep within the earth, hopefully where they remain sometimes. However, that isn't the case since time. Immemorial grave robbers treasure hunters and thieves alike have raided the crypts of the dead searching for anything. And sometimes any one of value. This macabre practice hasn't just been reserved for the lowest of society, but some of history's leaders as well. For example, Charles the second of England and the French convention of seventeen ninety three among others Ray. Rated the graves of their opponents destroying entire legacies. Yet for one man in history, the desecration of his body sent his remains on a strange journey for almost three hundred years. That's three hundred years without so-called rest. There are those who argue, though that this law soul deserved everything that was coming to him. Of course, there are those who also say the opposite, regardless of your stance. This man went on an extraordinary if not bizarre journey after debt, or at least his head did. Hi. I'm Molly and I'm Richard, welcome to gone the show where we searched for everything missing in each episode. We examined mysterious disappearances and the theories they spawned from the amber room to Michael. Rockefeller, Picasso paintings to the trust can language the Roanoke colony to the lost Russian cosmonauts. If it's gone, we're looking for it. If you wanna listen to previous episodes, you can find them on your favorite podcast directory or on our website. Har- cast dot com while you're there, don't forget to subscribe and leave a five star review. It seems simple, but it really helps the podcast. This week. We're going to look into the strange in Macab journey of one of Britain's most notorious and possibly infamous historical figures. Oliver Cromwell to give a brief introduction. Oliver Cromwell was the leader of Britain's first Republic, following a bloody civil war after his death in sixteen fifty, eight king Charles. The second had Cromwell's corpse dug up decapitated and his head placed on a pike atop Westminster Abbey. So what makes this story? So mysterious? Well, during a storm in the late seventeen hundreds, Oliver Cromwell's rotting head fell off the roof of Westminster Abbey. The head disappeared for almost three hundred years before supposedly turning up in the twentieth century. The questions are, was this really Oliver Cromwell's head? And if so, where headed been the last three hundred years, we'll also look into the theories. About what happened to his body and the rumors surrounding his ghoulish. Exclamation. Perhaps the head famously piked atop Westminster Abbey was never Oliver Cromwell's at all. But before we get into that, let's delve into the history of who Oliver Cromwell was. Where did he come from? What did he do? And why did Charles the second want to dig up his body and sever his head. On April twenty. Fifth fifteen ninety nine? All of our Cromwell was born in Huntington England to Robert Cromwell. And Elizabeth steward, Oliver would be their only surviving son in a family filled with daughters, making him heir to the family's modest fortune. As Cromwell grew up. He attended school at the Sidney Sussex college Cambridge, a constituent college of the now famous university of Cambridge. It was here that Oliver Cromwell began to move towards more conservative theology as Sidney Sussex was driven by a strong puritan ethos at the time as a refresher. The Puritans were reformed English Protestants who rose up in the sixteenth seventeenth century. They emphasized more conservative or pure worship of God. It was because of this conservative doctrine that they spoke out against the church of England and the English reformation who the puritan. Believed weren't distancing themselves enough from the Roman Catholic church. Puritans valued hard work and strict morality, and it was this ethos that informed Cromwell, the rest of his life, Oliver left school and returned home after his father died in sixteen seventeen. He then married Elizabeth butcher in sixteen twenty together. The couple had nine children between sixteen twenty one and sixteen thirty eight. Cromwell also began his career as a parliamentarian in king Charles the first court. He represented his home county Huntingdonshire in sixteen twenty eight though it suspected. He only got his position because of his wife's family connection to powerful puritan families. As Cromwell began his tenure in parliament. He went through a sort of mid-life crisis through the late sixteen twenty S into the sixteen thirties, Cromwell sought unspecified treatment. Emotional, and physical problems. It suspected he suffered from depression and was treated by the famous Swiss-born Dr. Theodore de mayor to make matters worse. Cromwell was forced down the societal ladder losing much of his status and nobility. This was due to a dispute with the Huntington Privy Council over a new town charter. This resulted in him having to sell his land and moved to Saint Ives in England, which was considered lesser land. This was said to be the final straw that drove Cromwell to have a spiritual awakening. According to various letters. Cromwell grew radicalized in his puritan faith. He spoke of how he was chief of sinners before being saved by God, much like his faith advocated. He grew to despise Catholocism and the church of England along with its clergy. He believed England and it's kingdoms were trapped in sin and needed to be rescued. It's even been hinted that Cromwell participated in underground Convento goals or secret radical religious meetings. These were considered illegal at the time this radicalized com well-turned quite a few heads and even made some enemies in parliament. He often spoke out about the church of England and it's corruption while many may have agreed with him. His outspoken nature often left him alienated by his peers. The situation however wasn't just tense because of Cromwell's stance on religion. Much of the parliament at the time was. Annoyed with the current king. Charles, I king Charles the, I was not a popular king. He had imposed numerous taxes and loans upon his subjects after a series of unpopular wars with Spain and France. He was also known for not working well with this parliament often disbanding it whenever motions didn't go his way, these failed meetings and growing tensions forced both king Charles the first and parliament to slowly build forces against one another. Pretty soon to factions arose the royalists who were loyal to the king and monarchy, and the parliamentarians those who sought to build a Republic free from the yoke of monarchy. Both sides recruited armies and in January of sixteen forty two, Charles personally invaded parliament with armed guards to try and arrest members of parliament. He was driven away and thus the English civil wars began. As the first civil war raged Cromwell found himself on the side of the parliamentarians though he had no prior military experience. He opted to recruit troops for cavalry soldiers and also began to train as one. Cromwell proved himself a capable soldier through a series of battles. It was thanks to these battles that Cromwell was eventually put in charge of training, the parliamentarians army by sixteen forty five. Cromwell had one decisive conflicts at nays be and Langport and by may sixteen forty six king Charles was forced to surrender ending the first English civil war from sixteen forty six to sixteen forty eight. There was a lull in combat, but continued turmoil in politics. Meanwhile, King Charles rallied his forces and once again tried to take back his throne by force in sixteen forty, eight Q the second English civil war. This war however, was short lived lasting only about a year. Cromwell led his forces una for Roche's campaign across England, striking down any royalist contingents. He executed his enemies with extreme prejudice all while claiming to be God's instrument. Cromwell had used religion to justify his actions before, but not on this scale. He wrote to allies, asking them to meditate on various films. It seemed no matter what happened. Whether Cromwell lost or one God was dictating the outcome regardless of divine intervention. The second civil war came to a close in December sixteen forty eight. Pretty soon much of the old parliament was removed. Only those who supported the new model army and its senior officers known as grandees remained. This new parliament was known as the roam. The rumps first order of business was the. Execution of Charles the first with fifty nine signatures Cromwell's being the second, the execution warrant of the king was brought forth and on January thirty th sixteen forty, nine king Charles, I was executed. This sparked an uproar across the kingdom, especially in Ireland and Scotland. Cromwell's forces mobilized and engaged in a series of massacres across Ireland and Scotland. While this was going on the rub struggled. Cromwell grew frustrated with his new government's ineffectual leadership. So he used armed soldiers to disarm and remove the rump parliament on April twentieth sixteen fifty three in their place. Cromwell installed a group of like minded religious individuals. This became known as the barebones parliament. The barebones parliament didn't last long either by the end of sixteen fifty. Three, a new constitution was drafted, and Oliver Cromwell was named Lord protector of the land for life. He was king in everything title from sixteen fifty, three to sixteen fifty. Eight. Cromwell ruled hoping to. Push for more serious social and religious reform. Despite his parliament hoping for continued political reform, allowing for a better distribution of Power. Cromwell insisted on a one man government and parliament more than that. He believed in rule by God and not by the people true to his puritan background. He continually pushed for more conservative laws such as his blue laws, which outlawed blasphemy, cursing, drunkenness, and adultery. Despite his best intentions, Cromwell was accused of being a hypocrite and tyrant, no better than the king. Most had worked hard to depose to add insult to injury. He lived in the monarchy's palaces, he dressed like them and he was referred to as your highness lucky for the UK Cromwell's health had been failing him since his campaigns in Ireland. He was suffering from kidney failure due in part to a urinary infection known. On as the stone. He also had malaria. On September. Third, sixteen fifty, eight. Oliver Cromwell passed away at age. Fifty nine. A Royal funeral was held and Cromwell's body was kept at Somerset house to be prepared for burial. He was embalmed and shrouded then placed in a magnificent wooden coffin covered in Royal symbols. His funeral was held on November twenty. Third sixteen fifty eight to allow time for embalming and the lavish setup. He was given an extravagant coffin and a huge statue effigy was made in his honor. He was finally buried not soon after yet. Cromwell's corpse found no peace. Let's

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