Africa, Matamba, North America discussed on BBC World Service
Goods from other regions of the planet semi colonial possessions in India and just a stress I think between fifteen eighty two the eighteen twenties. Well, over a million people from present day and goal at were exported slaves, mainly to Brazil, but also to North America. And in fact, sixty nine thousand four hundred marks the anniversary of the first arrival of slaves from Angola to North America that that's right. Isn't it? Exactly. So this trade from Mongolia actually went on up into the eighteen fifties. Eighteen sixties central Africa. So the zero was the largest distance by far, but people were take into other places as well, including British North America as well as Cuba in the nineteenth century. So as a business the level resilience of this, very evil enterprise is. Astonishing. And just absolutely nail. This rookie would engender herself which you had been involved in this trade as Linda pointed out before she was one of the players one of the drivers of this trade as well. Since she was fighting the Portuguese to the extent you have captives of war. The key question. Then becomes what do we do with this captives of war? You do not have the logistical framework the infrastructure to keep people as captives for a long time, you either get rid of them or you sell them, your enemies. Okay. Let's just deal with the other element in all of this. Which is the the European religious brotherhoods. Toby what what role did they play both in in local society, and in the trans Atlantic trade. Well, that's that's a very interesting question. The Jesuits for example, had large plantations just to the north of Luanda which were worked by slaves from the early seventeenth century. And a lot of those stations were producing particularly manioc crops to feed because of course, as it was this period, the largest region in Africa involved in the transatlantic slave trade all of those captives had to be fed with crops Nichols clocks produced in Africa. So a lot of the Jesuits role was very complicated. They did have a big institution foundation in inland. Sadly all of the records, which the Jesuits kept having lost. So we don't actually know as much as we would do for many other parts of the world times Jesuit involvement that was significant Adams. Contain that sense in late trade in grain crops for the copies, but also from the sixteenth forties. As cannot mention the cappuccino several missions to central Africa from Spain in from Italy. And people like that who you mentioned Antonio guy and others became very involved in the mission is in process, and I think in terms of genius involvement in Christianisation, and as we just discussed in terms of the slave trade. I think there's also a very important time period here after sixteen forty s when the Portuguese much stronger position in central Africa, her conversion to Christianity and heroin slave trade change because of political change now, Linda ingenious alliance with the in Bengal didn't give her the power over and done that she wanted. So she has so it's on the neighboring kingdom of Matamba now in that kingdom with some of the others in the wider region. It wasn't uncommon to have a female ruler. So what happened in this case while? She had to find after having moved about in her Kilombero, which is a moving military Cam. She had to find a base that always been relationship between Matamba. And so that was a logical place to conquer and to set up a permanent residence. And this is what she did. And she made it more powerful than it was she made it more globally known than it was because it was from timbre that she started re assassin her position. And she would in fact, come back to Christianity. And then try to have a religious diplomacy with some missionaries who were not Jesse with missionaries Capuchin missionaries, we're gonna come to that later, but I just want to stay on and the role of women in this part of Africa because it was meant to lineal society. Right. Well, what man were traditionally in Battambang women traditionally lead. And it turned into more powerful state on the Jenga, but it was already recognized by Congo as a powerful Congo claimed that Matamba paid tribute to Congo. But they also said that Dongo paid tribute to Congo throughout the sixteen thirties and Jinja consolidated a position and that ever adopted kingdom of Matamba and then in sixteen forty one a major new player arrived in the region from Europe. The Dutch their entry into anger threaten to completely all to the balance of power in west Africa, much as it had already done in Brazil. And what happened next is the subject of the second part.