"Going to be discussing a particular of example of construction. That is really just as amazing as you know. Making all these giant blocks bringing them together and building the pyramid but This particular example is also going to buck the traditional steps that we've discussed here and we're going to be looking at century's old Christian temples in Ethiopia that were we're not built from blocks of stone that were quarried over here and then brought together and then assembled into a building. No these are free reese standing monolithic churches that are each hewn from the solid. Red Volcanic Goria under laid by dark gray a basalt standing tall in the quarries from which they were sculpted so basically these were hewn out of solid stone. The quarry becomes the courtyard. Yeah it's a building that is not built but released from the earth. subtractive manufacturing of Marvel's it it is. It is amazing. I was not familiar with these until just last week when I was looking around for an episode For us to do and I was initially thought. Oh why don't we do Petra the the ruins in Jordan you know with the where the architecture is built into the side of this this kind of like ravine a situation right if you think you've never seen these these rock hewn Buildings you probably have their featured for example in Indiana Jones and the last crusade the show up in several several movies pet petro specifically in this case right so so is the no. Petro would be a good Episode started looking roundabout indie Petras fascinating. Perhaps we'll come back back to it but then I I was just looking around at other. Examples of of buildings had been hewn from stone. And then these just really stood out as the prime prime example like the most extreme example of what you could do with subtractive manufacturing of an entire building to bill to construct a building by not even constructing it by just carving away at solid stone until it is there with no need for bricks or mortar or would or nails or any of this architecture. Protect sure as sculpture. Yeah so where will you find these will you will find them. In lally Bella Ethiopia Ethiopia is of course the nation in eastern in Africa and they stood there at least since the late twelfth century CE though probably get into some of the dating in greater detail later later but I just a few notes about Ethiopia. In general modern Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world and the second most populous African nation after Nigeria Copa is also considered one of only two African nations never to be subjected to Long Term European colonization position the other being Liberia and to be more specific it was it was never it was never call an is during the nineteenth century period where so much of Africa was though it was occupied by Italy of during the Second World War but not not long enough for there to be like true lasting cultural change because it still throughout its history. It certainly came into contact with foreign ideas and influences. And we'll be discussing a major one here today because because one of the things you noticed about Is that it's majority. Religion is the Ethiopian Orthodox Taylor Hato church what's known as an Oriental Orthodox Christian church and it dates back many centuries. There's also a sizable Islamic population in Ethiopia followed in popularity by Protestants traditional faiths Catholicism and Judaism. Now of course there are other fascinating things about Ethiopia's well for instance. Ethiopian cuisine has certainly traveled well around the world. I think thing is widely believed to be the origin. Place of coffee is coffee and Okra is well. I was I chatted with Anne of our fellow. PODCAST here in the Atlanta offices saver and I said Hey. Have you guys done anything. I need the OPN cuisine because we could mention on the podcast and they said that had not yet though they both love the food but they have done an episode Okra and they've done an episode on coffee that get into those origins and say those are two of my favorite plant based foods. Are you an ochre fan or would you one of those people who thinks that slimy. Oh I love Okra and I love it because it is slimy especially in Gumbo. Does it acts as a thickening agent so I I want there to be Okra present in media dish buses great. It's great fried. It's great escape pickled Yeah I'm an Okra Fan for sure. Okay we're on the same page. I like all those ways to. I also really like Okra in Indian food. Yeah it goes really good with Indian spices who I had it in Indian food before but maybe not recently enough for it to really struck a chord. I'll have to seek it out. There is a restaurant here in town. That made a really amazing curried Okra and then then they went out of business. All right well. Let's talk in greater detail tale about Ethiopian Christianity. Then because since we're focusing in on Old Christian temples that were carved out of the ground in Ethiopia. We should in describe how Christianity came to East Africa. Sure So I was looking at a scientific paper that will make a brief reference to later in the episode and the authors of this paper Ethiopian scientists AGFA Wilson S Rot. And you did. I do They point out in the background. Section of the paper that the broader tradition of rock hewn churches in Ethiopia is historically associated with the coming of a group of figures known. Is the nine saints who were alleged to have journeyed from Egypt and Syria during the late fifth and early sixth centuries to preach the gospel of Christianity in Ethiopia Propia and more specifically to spread and promote the monastic lifestyle. So I was digging into this claim I wanted to learn more about the nine saints and this eventually led me down a path where I found a really awesome entry about Ethiopian Christianity in the monastic tradition. In a book called the encyclopedia the of Monasticism edited by this story and Will Johnston with this specific entry on Ethiopian Monastic Christianity written by the Ethiopian American philology Lalla Gist getachew highly. I was reading this as well. And it is quite Quite a fascinating entry. I just had no idea just how imported the monastic tradition was for just Ethiopian. Culture General. Yeah Yeah so highly writes that Due to the proximity of Ethiopia to the Middle East some Christianity entity probably began to spread their organically as soon as the religion was founded but highly also claims that Ethiopian Christianity is a form of the religion. That's it's kind of uniquely shaped by monks and monastic influences. So what exactly would that mean well. Monasticism is the tradition we associate with with monks and nuns. It's the strain of faith that calls for a radical lifestyle of religious devotion often including things like vows of poverty or vows of chastity or vows of silence or fasting General seclusion from secular life. As you know the priest or preacher within the religion might usually live among the society preaching the faith meanwhile the monk shakes in some way to live outside the society rejecting many of the comforts and pleasures of dorm life making their day to day habits and living conditions themselves kind of a radical demonstration of"