Riverside, California, University Of California Riverside discussed on C-SPAN2 Book TV
Well. I think it's when. We'll be Goldberg said what is the deep state and who's in charge? I think when the wheels fell off the wagon the first segment was pretty good. But the second was not so good. You can watch her full program as well as programs with Stephen Moore and Dan Bongino online at book, TV dot org. Search their names at the top of the page. Welcome to riverside, California. Located about fifty five miles east of downtown, Los Angeles. It has a population of almost three hundred thirty thousand and is home to the university of California riverside founded in the eighteen seventies. It's known as the birthplace of California's citrus industry after the naval orange was introduced and successfully grown there with help from our spectrum cable partners for the next hour and fifteen minutes. We'll explore the city's history and literary life as we talk with authors. And look at collections we begin our feature on riverside with author Steve lack to learn about the history of the city. We're in the FOX theater in downtown riverside, California as a kid we would come. They would show kids, movies, etc. And so what eight ten twelve years old? We would come here to the FOX. I was born and raised here been here. My entire life. Well, of course, it goes back several thousand years with the local Indians here, and we have a number of groups that were in this area really not one to specific because we're right along the river. And so a lot of groups used that that river for their own sustenance. So we had the Indians we had the Serano Indians. We had what they themselves. Call the tongue in historical records. It was the Gabriela because they were part of the San Gabriel mission Lewis Sanyo Indians, also too and that goes back probably in the nine to ten thousand year range for here. When you start talking about non Indian settlement that really starts in the seventeen seventy s when a number of the Spanish explorers are coming through the area. And then that's later supplanted by the Mexican times here, which is then of course, supplanted by the American. Annexation of California starting in eighteen fifty we become a state we had kind of this perfect storm of a number of things that are coming together at this time eighteen seventies eighteen eighties. We've at the railroads coming to hear obviously California's on the far West End of the of the country and most everybody lives in the midwest and back east so in order to get out here, we the government subsidizes the railroads to come out. So that's one big thing because that becomes more comfortable for people to come out here. The climate is another one we've got a very unique what was called Mediterranean type of climate out here. And so it was like going to Italy or Greece or what have you, but you could stay here in the United States. And so the climate is doing are making a very big factor at a time. When of course, this is the industrial revolution. We have factories in our cities back east that are belching a lot of smoke and people are getting a lot of lung ailments, and unfortunately with TV and stuff. At this time all the doctors could do with listen to your chest and say, you're sick you need to get out of here and get to a more dry or arid climate. And so this is drawing a lot of people out here who are hoping to get. The TB or asthma bronchitis baked out of their out of their lungs. So there's that factor. There's the agricultual factor. We have a lot of land available here. And if you're young you live in New England, you wanted to be a farmer as most people did, unfortunately, they couldn't because most of the land was in landed families at the time, but you could come out here, you could homestead for virtually free or you could buy fairly cheap land and set up a farm and farm at the last factor that was coming into play was really kind of this new love or new romance of Spanish are Spanish and Mexican passed. And it was brought about by the publication of a novel called Ramona and Ramona was really supposed to be the ankle Tom's cabin for the California Indians. The woman who wrote it was Helen hunt. Jackson, and she really wanted to sort of highlight the plight of the Indians, just like uncle Tom's cabin did with the slaves. Unfortunately, what happened was that. She died within just a few months of its publication. And she had written such glowing accounts of what southern California was like least in her vision. It's always a sun-drenched landscape. Everything's either fruit or bloom, we get these images of the peaceful Indians working for the Padres. And the like, and that's quite a draw to two people want to come out here when they read oh my goodness. It's it's always springtime out here is that true. And they come out so between trying to rediscover our Spanish past are health concerns are agricultural opportunities. And now we have railroads that can bring people out fairly quickly cheaply and easily. We start to see a huge population. Boom here in the eighteen seventies and more. So in the eighteen eighty s but by eighteen seventy three. We discover a what became the Washington naval orange, and this was orange that had come from Brazil through to Washington DC. And the folks at the USDA really didn't know what to do with it. They sent a some of them Florida. They didn't work. Well, and so we had a woman here named Eliza Tibbets with connections at USDA. And she said, you know, send them out here. Let's see what they can do and almost immediately glommed onto the fact that this was a perfect location for them. And this was a perfect type of crop. The oranges were large. They were sweet they were seedless and they had a fairly thick skin because again, most people live back east. So if we're going to grow a bunch of these we've got to be able to get them to Cleveland Washington Boston wherever and so this was almost an immediate success. And it's something that really kind of bloomed very very quickly because being a seedless orange. It has to be grafted. And so you can graft hundreds from just a couple of trees and the next year, you can graft, thousands, etc. So by the early to mid eighteen eighty s we were exporting hundreds if not thousands of boxes of very valuable oranges again out to the midwest. Chicago Boston that area too and making quite a bit of money off of them and this continued to grow really through the nineteen thirties. And with the advent of a number of different. Other industries with it. We were became a very very wealthy community very quickly. In fact, by eighteen ninety five this is just twenty twenty five years after oversight started we had the highest per capita income in the country, and it was because of those naval oranges. Lots of people were making a lot of money off of them. After World War Two. Of course, we saw the normal decline in that. And at this point now the city's industry kind of gives way to suburbanization which is happening really nationwide. Cities are starting to decentralize and move to the suburbs. And riverside is very much part of that we're tearing up some of the orange groves planting houses instead of orange trees and the city becomes decentralized. And so down town starts to deteriorate. We have additional shopping areas outside of downtown that are coming on along with all these suburbs. And this is really happening really region-wide southern California, huge housing shortage after World War Two guys are coming back. A lot of them have been in the Pacific theater and the tropics and they like the warm climate. So they don't necessarily want to go back to Detroit or Chicago and have to deal with winters again. So they're coming out here into the sunbelt, and especially southern California with their VA loans to buy a new suburban house somewhere outside of downtown here, just like in many other cities. And so we see a huge shift in land use a shift in our agricultural base. We get more industry in here. As opposed to growing of the the citrus, etc. And there's really just kind of a major shift going on here in population and land use here in riverside. We really start to see it quite a bit starting in the seventies and eighties out here because as LA Orange County fill up and land becomes scarcer it necessarily moves east, and it continues to movies even today. So really the bigger much bigger boom happens in the eighties nineties when we see a lot of houses a lot more houses being built out in this area. And this really becomes the dominant land use out here at this point. Unfortunately, what we end up with is a system where we have most of our jobs are actually in the Elian, Orange County area. But most of our homes are out here in the inland area. So people necessarily have to get up early commute and commute back there. It's not to say, we don't have industry and jobs here, but there's quite a few of them in the LA, Orange County area. And so people community had not only from here. But also from the other towns here in the inland area. Riverside is a well. I guess you call it a medium sized city. What about three hundred and twenty five thousand people? Again. Like, I said we're in the inland empire. We've got a very varied population. We go from the high socioeconomic level down to the low as far as demographics are concerned. We pretty much run the gamut between the Anglo Americans to Hispanics, which are large part of the population African Americans etcetera, very large part of the population too. So I think we kind of mirror a lot of southern California. We're becoming a denser community. Now suburbanization is giving away more to urban land uses as the population continues to grow. So when we look out downtown here. Now, we're seeing a lot more loft and apartment type of developments that are coming in multi-storey things which you would not have seen here very very regularly back in the day. So we're seeing a lot of that. There's a younger pop. That's coming into. Apparently, we were one of the big attractions for the millennial crowd out here. And so we're getting a lot more land uses and businesses that cater to that demographic too. But we're seeing more urban land uses come into even a suburban setting. Then I hope they walk away with a sense of what it was like, and what the people were like who came out here when this was pretty much a barren plane as it was described as and we're able to set up a town set up other towns built a railroad to bring people out here, and what they had to do in order to do that. We think, you know, people back, then we're tougher and a lot of ways they were. They gave up their homes wherever they were. And they came on out here to an area described in diaries is basically a desolate plain what am I gonna eat where am I going to get water at cetera, and they made it work, and they got there hosing the ground, and they dug the trenches for the water, they subdivided the land. And they they brought other people out here and made it work. The major thing is that riverside was really the seat of the naval orange industry. And we kind of added to not only our our own growth, but others because we of course, we exported those, and so this really put us on the map, and when people think of riverside today, it's more thought of as a sleepy inland community. But this was really a hub of activity at the time and was for many many years and people made it a point to come out here. That's of course, given way and a lot of degrees to other uses and other businesses and other demographics necessarily. But that's where our roots are Steve lack is author of the book along the old roads variety collection at the university of California.