A highlight from Are Probiotics Ready for Practice?
My first faculty position was a minority turkeys was introduced a college in dublin and was a gastroenterologist. They're not keeling was a very good friend of mine. He persuaded me that. The brain got access was relevant in relation to psychiatric illness at that time. Dopey really considered microbes within the got to be relevant in relation to the brain got access. And when i came back to cork seventeen or eighty years ago. A group of micro biologist and gastrologist decided that they're going to set up a new at brain got institute which we set up so i was involved in setting it up and at that stage. People thought michael might be important in relation to the brand. It wasn't at all clear so we begun researching the area. And i've been working in that area now for the past seventeen eighteen years. I'm a psychiatrist. And i decided at the very beginning that if we were going to engage in this research that we are going to publish the best journals out there because it's an emerging discipline. There's a certain degree of skepticism. About self our initial publications would have been been john peony s to the nineteen nineties. The general sense i got was that the brain is protected from the rest of the body by a tight web called the blood brain barrier other than stroke and a crane disorders and a few infections. There wasn't much that got in their back then. Psychopharmacology was all about synoptic festivals and neurotransmitters. But things have changed one landmark that stands out to me was two thousand thirteen. That was when dr trolls raisins group at emory published. The first randomized controlled trial of a medication that treats depression without even crossing the blood brain barrier. How did it work with saudi getting into the brain. The thought was that it treated depression. By reducing inflammation in the body. The medication was to the crisis factor antagonised inflexible and worked for treatment resistant depression but only in those who had elevated markers of inflammation like crp. You're probably not going to be using inflexible matt in everyday practice because it has to be given. Iv among other things but in this journal we featured a few articles lately on how to treat depression by reducing inflammation and dr dina's work on probiotics and the mind gut connection is one of them. But first let's hear from dr dean about what the gut microbiome is. The god microbiome is essentially the collection of micro organisms within the intestine. Now the majority of them are in the large in stein and the beat assed volume is carried bacteria. Now there are obviously viruses and fungi. There there are a variety of microbes. But we've largely focused on bacteria the golden microbial over navarine adult like you are. I is at least a kilo gram and weight. So it's it's quite a large wage. It's it's pretty much the same way. As the human brain really traditionally. We've always taken the view that their commencement. They don't do anything any harm there. There we feed them because we feed these bacteria as well but it really is only one in the last fifteen years that people have begun to realize that in fact there really is a synergistic relationship between these microbes and dos and was we might feed them that they in turn produce chemicals that our brain and other organs in our body absolutely choir how these gut bacteria influence the brain when i think they influence the brand in a variety of ways that be one of our database of boll is big areas of research over. The years is trying to anything. There are lots of unknown questions but the narva security very important majority. It's a long meandering nerve. It sends signals from brain. To got it sends signals from the brain we showed in taper in peony s their own twelve years ago. That sir microbes could only communicate with the brain. Is the vegas nerve was intact. So we did a gossipy in an animal. The microbe couldn't communicate with the brain. So the vegas nerve has very important author important. Communication routes would be short chain fatty acids. now we don't produce short chain fatty acids but certain microbes with the gods by metabolising fiber can produce short chain fatty acids like buke rate proprio nate. And they get into the bloodstream. And they mail so signal through the vagus nerve but certainly production is important and they are important signaling molecules to the brain other important signaling molecules to the brain which maybe we would have ignored ten to twenty years ago and that is more at almost everyone would be familiar with trip defend because the building block of serotonin. We need a constant supply of trip to thanked crossing the blood brain barrier because the human brain does not store trip to find in any great quantity so we need this constant supply and the view twenty years ago. Certainly was that all the trip to fan came from the diet but it's become clear in recent years that certain microbes like bacteria have the machinery to synthesize tryptophan. So trip defending is coming. Not just the diet. Books the microbial as well and getting into the bloodstream. And then of course traveling to the brain and crossing the blood brain barrier. And as i said it's the building block of of serotonin i mean. There are other routes of communication as well. How important they are in the normal circumstances debatable. But certainly colbert is a big issue at the moment clearly and site kinds and their impact on the brain a very relevant