"So when John McCarthy I publicly talked about time sharing at mit in this speech he gave he explicitly explicitly compared it to electricity and said this is a way everyone can have computing not just in universities and schools are businesses is but also in their homes going back and reading articles and documents from that time no question in many people's minds that there would be a computing in utility and that it would and could be regulated so there was a lot of faith and support for this sort of national national time sharing utility so it's interesting is that by nineteen seventy. IBM actually pulled out of the time sharing industry even ge they sold their mainframe computer division but they actually retained their timeshare part of the business. Let's talk a little bit about that. What happened in nineteen seventy? I think nineteen nineteen seventy has become sort of a marker of maybe an artificial marker of the fall of the promise of computing utilities or the time sharing sharing industry in some ways. It's false I think sort of it was by the late sixties it was clear that MIT and Multidex were struggling to sort of create create this thousands and thousands of terminals time sharing system and it was a very public prominent project and at the same time in the nineteen late nineteen sixties he's tens of time sharing businesses sort of providing computing on this utility model had sprung up around the United States and we're booming sort of it was a check bubble and then the enthusiasm fell away not completely because while Ge sold it's time sharing sort of mainframe computer business they retained their time sharing as utility business through the nineteen eighteen seventies in one thousand nine hundred eighty s and it was profitable that's very and universities like mit continue to run time sharing systems also uh into the one thousand nine hundred eighty s so there's I think a public memory that time sharing was like a tech bubble that just died out in the nineteen seventies is partially because there was so much attention to multi struggling yet it actually if we sort of go back and look at act how people were using it and how profitable it was and how successful it was it thrived through the nineteen seventy s now back at bell labs a group of four technologists one at a time sharing system of their own Ken Thompson Dennis Ritchie Doug mcilroy and J. F. Asana but they didn't want multiplex they wanted to leapfrog towards something cleaner and more powerful something they called UNIX multidex WCHS was I would say the inspiration for UNIX in the sense that some of the programmers who were working on multidex so enjoyed read the benefits of programming on a time sharing system that they wanted to create that environment for themselves when when it was clear that multi was struggling these were programmers at bell labs and they decided to try to create their own programming programming framework and sort of time sharing system and that's what became UNIX joy rankin is the author of a People's history of computer and the United States Dennis Ritchie he would later describe him and three other bell labs co workers as a fellowship. The fellowship wanted to work as this tight quartet of developers and they needed the hardware to accommodate their programming but bell labs really had moved on from the time sharing dream and as much as bell labs APPs could be a utopia for research. This was a case where they'd hit their limit so they rejected proposals that new hardware it was just too pricey. See why take the risk but the fellowship soldiered on Thompson and Ritchie asked for a machine like the G. E. Six forty five which which they'd been using to work on Multidex when they couldn't get the funding for that the scribbled ideas about file systems on paper eventually they they manage to implement some of their ideas in a game they called space travel which ran on a p. d. p. seven they kept on working with that. PDP seven which was basically in the same class as a commodore sixty four bit by bit with no backing from bell at least at first that fellowship gave their time sharing dream new life in the form of something they called Unix but here's the thing the UNIX operating system was being created in assembly language. I mean these guys were transferring files to their. PCP seven on paper tape so you can imagine they're they're trying to build this groundbreaking thing with less than ideal tools and again with no backing from the bosses UNIX was coming to life but it was still missing language that would really let it saying"