Alzheimers, Alzheimer's Disease, United Nations discussed on Exploration



Of New York, and this is exploration. Every can exploration we discussed the fascinating world of science and has impact on society and today leading off we're going to summarize. Well, the big stories of two thousand eighteen one were the big stories in science and technology that will affect your life and the lives of your loved ones as well. As the future of humanity itself. We'll talk about a number of topics today. First of all leading off the number one story is climate change the United Nations released a devastating report backed by ninety scientists and six thousand peer reviews, stating that watch out in the coming decades. Temperatures could rise one and a half degrees, which could set off a chain reaction of negative environmental effects. So we'll talk about that. As the lead story for two. Thousand eighteen and then we're gonna talk about outer space. Yes. The Mars inside probe landed successfully on the surface of Mars, and it's going to begin a series of experiments determine the internal structure of the red planet. And then the question is well is there water liquid water on the red planet? Well, the Italian space agency says yes using ground penetrating radar. They were able to find a gigantic liquid water lake underneath the polar ice caps. And then the Japanese sent a space probe passed an asteroid, which then brings to the fore the question of well, whether or not it's possible to mind the asteroid belt. Some people think there's a gold mine out there and with our ability to reach out and actually landed on asteroids, if then raises the possibility of one day last sewing and asteroid bringing it back down to earth and harvesting the platinum base and rare earth elements of an asteroid which in principle could re billions of dollars in process prophets. And then of course, the space force is dominating the news. We already have the coastguard the marines. We have the army the navy and now a space force. Well, the Trump administration is going out to convince the American people that we need a space for us. But what are the pros and cons of one day? If we begin the process of militarising outer and we'll talk about the outer space treaty of nineteen sixty seven does it need to be revised. And then leaving outerspace. Will summarize the top news about. Inner space the leading story today concerns genetic engineering experiments done in China, some of them perhaps unauthorized creating a tremendous amount of controversy, the crisper techniques which allows you to to cut and paste jeans almost like using a pair of scissors. Allows scientists to begin the process of genetically engineering embryos. And so there was the announcement in China that yes, human embryos, were in fact, genetically engineered to make them less susceptible to HIV, and is creating quite a bit of controversy. And also the Chinese announced that they successfully cloned a monkey for the first time in history. For decades. It seemed scientists said that well, we've never been able to clone a primate we've been able to clone farm animals we clone household pets, but primates is simply too difficult. Well, the Chinese did it they've cloned a monkey the first primate ever to be cloned. And then the question is well are humans next and then talking about DNA scientists found evidence of early humans ninety thousand years ago inside Syria, which were inbred that is able to a cross between two species, the NFL and the Denisovans, and it's sort of like Lord of the rings member that movie Lord of the rings where we have elves and orcs, and humans we have this zoo. This imagine we have this menagerie of human species, but who are different and disliked the Lord of the rings, some people. I think that today as we go back into the past with DNA techniques. Today's technology allows us to recreate the family tree of humans, and we find that there are many more branches than we thought and some of these branches well interbred with each other ninety thousand years ago, there was a female that was a byproduct of Denisovans Neanderthal match. And so it leads went to believe that well, perhaps our family tree is a little bit more inbred than we originally thought. And then remember that movie Jurassic Park a lot of scientists pooh-poohed it saying that come on give me a break. I mean, amber that in cases life forms preserved for over sixty five million years come on give me a break. Well, here's a discovery that was announced snake embryos encased in amber were tested, and they were found to be a hundred and five million. Years old let me repeat that again. Snake embryos encased in amber were found to be one hundred and five million years old much older, then when the dinosaurs died out, and then the question is will one day, perhaps we might find dinosaur DNA encased in amber. Well, we'll have to wait and see about that one. Also on the medical front Alzheimer's in the news. You know, it's almost like monotonous every year on exploration. We say that we have not made any progress at all at all reversing the horrible effects of Alzheimer's disease. Perhaps some of your relatives died of Alzheimers, and you know, the anguish that we face my mother died of Alzheimer's disease. And I've seen firsthand with the ravages of this is these could be could it robs you of your memories, and your a density, and who you are. For the first time in years. We can report some good news on the Alzheimer's front. The Gladstone institute in San Francisco for the first time in history, we're able to actually reverse some of the ravages in humans not in mice in humans and also in California. Another study was done in mice this time, which actually show that you can reverse some of the effects of Alzheimer's by attacking the enzymes responsible for creating the beta amyloid plaques. This is good news. Now, again, we don't want to raise hopes to high. This does not mean that we have a cure for Alzheimer's. But for the first time, we can actually contemplate reversing some of the effects of Alzheimer's disease. And speaking about the medical front. Let's also say a few things about D N A, especially as regards to the unveiling of criminals in cold cases, cold cases, that we're essentially buried decades ago, but can be solved now using familial DNA. So we'll talk about the promise, but also perhaps the drawbacks of it. Some civil libertarians say that it raises question of invasion of privacy because your DNA is being used to find criminals in your family tree. Other people say, well, what's wrong with that? I mean, they're criminals after all, yes, they are related to by blood. But why should we defend criminals when they in turn can go out and kill and rape, even more individuals. Well, let's just jump right into some of the top stories of twenty eighteen twenty eighteen was quite a year. We've seen tremendous disruptions. Taking place in the atmosphere. Look at what's happening to California is almost unrecognizable the devastation the forest fires. For example, the droughts you name it California's had problems with the weather, and then we have this gloomy. United Nations report backed by ninety scientists and it was peer review by six thousand scientists and it painted a rather gloomy picture of what happened between twenty thirty and twenty fifty two at the current rate were headed for a rise in temperature of one and a half degrees. Now, you may say to yourself. Well, that's not much temperature goes up ten twenty degrees just in a season. But then you realize that this is the average rise for the entire planet earth. And you realize they're going back before the industrial revolution. We've only had about one degree rise since the beginning of the. The machine age, and so this could be potentially catastrophic. The most immediate effect would be sea level rise certain island nations will disappear major cities could go underwater or need very expensive dikes and levees to preserve them. Look at Venice. For example, many days of the year say Markelle plazas actually underwater look at New Orleans parts of New Orleans are actually below sea level. And so we're talking about a tremendous change in the way, we view the environment and cities and island nations. I live in Manhattan, and we realized that the southern part of Manhattan is lower than the northern part. And what lies in the southern part of Manhattan, Wall Street. So you could imagine that there would be an outcry to have levees and dikes and all sorts of different kinds of mechanisms to prevent Wall Street from going under way. Water. And then look what's happening to the poles the North Pole and the south pole in the north polar region. We're seeing large areas of Alaska Siberia, begin the process of thawing out, I won't smoke in Siberia a few years ago, and the Siberians they're actually told me.

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