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A new story from The Economist: The Intelligence

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<Music> <Music> <Music> <Music> <Music> <Music> historians <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> often piece together? <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> Their accounts of <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> past societies <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> and economies <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> using diverse sources <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> from <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> paintings to written <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> accounts to <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> increasingly hard <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> data. <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> It turns out <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> there's a fairly complete <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> record of prosperity <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> in Europe over <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> the past two thousand <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> years <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> and it's held in deposits <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> of the element <Speech_Music_Male> lead <SpeakerChange> high <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> in the Arctic <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> lead is <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> released into the atmosphere <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> when silver is <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> refined <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> gets carried by winds <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> all over the world <Speech_Music_Male> and in <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> the Arctic it gets trapped <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> in layers of glacial <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> ice <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> so by analyzing <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> the lead present in <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> Arctic ice cores <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> scientists have been <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> able to produce a record <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> of the European <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> economy from Roman <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> to modern times. <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> This <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> is what it sounds <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> like <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> <SpeakerChange> <Speech_Male> from around thirty one <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> BC the <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> Pax Romana <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> ushered <SpeakerChange> in a sustained <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> period of <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> peace and prosperity. <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> <SpeakerChange> <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> More <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> silver was being <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> reduced leading <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> to higher lead deposits <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> in the Arctic. <Speech_Male> They increased sixfold <Speech_Male> in just <Speech_Music_Male> twenty five years. <Music> <Advertisement> <Music> <Advertisement> <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> <SpeakerChange> <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> Nearly two hundred years <Speech_Music_Male> later they were <Speech_Music_Male> still almost as high <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> until a <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> plague swept <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> through the Roman Empire. <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> It was probably <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> caused by smallpox <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> or measles <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> and killed as <Speech_Music_Male> many as five million <Speech_Music_Male> people <Speech_Male> silver production <Speech_Music_Male> plummeted over the <Speech_Music_Male> next fifty years. <Music> <Advertisement> <Music> <Advertisement> <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> <SpeakerChange> <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> The <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> next big spike began <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> in seven sixty <Speech_Music_Male> eight. Ad <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> Charleen <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> the self-described <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> renewal <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> of the Roman Empire <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> needed money <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> to fund his assault on <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> Europe but <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> gold was in short <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> supply <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> so he established <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> a new currency standard <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> that lever. <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> Carolinian <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> based on a pound <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> of silver <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> is meant turned <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> out huge quantities <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> of this new currency <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> and Arctic <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> lead deposits increased <Speech_Male> by nearly eight <Speech_Music_Male> times in just twenty <Speech_Music_Male> years. <Speech_Music_Male> <Speech_Music_Male> <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> The next peak <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> came win. Silver was discovered <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> in Yashem. <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> Stall Small <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> village in Bohemia <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> at the start of the <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> sixteenth century <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> that mine <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> became the most prolific <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> in Europe. <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> Lead DEPOSITS. <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> Triple <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> the <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> installer a weighty. <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> Silver coin became <Speech_Music_Male> the defacto currency <Speech_Music_Male> of Europe and <Speech_Music_Male> the new world. <Speech_Music_Male> The Taller <Speech_Male> as it was known even <Speech_Male> lent its name to <Speech_Male> another popular currency. <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> The dollar <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> from around Seventeen <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> fifty industrial <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> processes overtook <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> silver production <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> as the chief source <Speech_Male> of lead pollution <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> over the next <Speech_Male> two centuries <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> lead deposits grew <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> to fourteen times <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> their pre industrial <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> levels reaching <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> a peak in one thousand <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> nine hundred seventy <Speech_Music_Male> <Speech_Male> beginning with the clean air. <Speech_Male> Act in the same year. <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> They've now dropped <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> by eighty percent. <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> They remain <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> sixty times higher <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> than they were in. The medieval <Music>

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