Kelvin, Einstein, Proton discussed on TechStuff
Really really close together now at that point when you have fused to hydrogen protons together, you've created a different element. Hydrogen has now become helium. At temperature, millions of degrees. So We can't. We might both be that they might be giants seeing them in a week. To Atlanta by the time he goes here this. I've already seen it in. The show is awesome. I guess. So anyway, the the the protons have fused together to form helium, but here's the interesting thing in that process, the mass of that helium atom is slightly less than the combined masses of the two hydrogen atoms that fused together to make the helium. Why is that Jonathan? Some of that mass gets converted into energy. There's a little equation you may have heard of called E. equals. MC squared I think I think some some guy named Einstein was talking about. Here Einstein. Einstein came up with this idea He came up with a theory and and turns out that it. It looks like it's true. energy equals mass. Times Square or the speed of light squared rather not the square speed of light, but the speed of light squared. Speed of light is a big big big big number, and you square it, and it's even bigger much bigger, and you multiply even bigger and multiply that times whatever the mass is you get your energy output, and so essentially what this equation tells us is that a tiny little bit of mass once converted into energy will be an enormous amount of energy. Right same thing. That mass and energy never really go away. Art simply converted. CanNot create or destroy energy, but what we can do is convert energy to mass and mass energy at least in theory now. If we were to convert energy to mass, we take an awful lot of energy to make just a little bit of mass, which is why I always go crazy when i read the Harry, Potter books and people conjure stuff out of thin air because I think you just destroyed like three solar systems in order to do that clearly pulling them from a parallel dimension or something like that. Yeah, so there's just A. Parallel Dimension! There's a really huge room of requirement somewhere. That's okay. Yeah, all right now. Now you're talking my language, so yeah it. A little bit of mass creates a low energy, so even though we're talking tiny atomic measurements here where we have the helium atom, which has got a lower mass than the two combined hydrogen atoms that still puts off quite a bit of energy, and and the sun is doing this all the time with tons of hydrogen converting into helium every day right all right so. Massive amount of energy. That's being that's being omitted. I mean if it weren't being omitted, then there'd be no life on this planet. Right and we know it works. You know so. We can serve this this is this is as far as we can. Tell real science, yes, so. We know it works? We can do it in fact, we have done it. We've reproducing here on Earth we'll get into that in a little bit, but the question was. If the DON does this if that's how the sun does, could we create energy here on Earth using a similar message knowing that on earth, the conditions are very different the core of the sun. We don't have that gravity or that heat that is allowing the sun to overcome the right. Force yeah, the in the in the gravity is the really important part because that gravity is what's allowing the this nuclear fusion process to happen at a temperature that would actually be lower than we would need here on earth, because we don't have that gravity, we don't have the ability to compress the atoms as tightly together as we would, if it if we had the sun's gravity. To. We have to overcome that with even more heat. The Sun only needs about fifteen million degrees. Kelvin only measly fifty million Kelvin fifteen stories are yeah. Yeah, my my bad I always do that I did it once. One of our great listeners corrected me, and that's the only reason that our listeners are awesome, and they know when I've done something silly like that completely ridiculous only reason. So, thank you listeners. So yeah. The Sun only needs about fifteen million. Kelvin in order to do this here on earth that would be something like one hundred million, so we're talking massive amounts of energy that we would need here on earth to compensate for the fact that we don't have that gravity there to help us with this reaction. Now in the sun, you're talking about the pure hydrogen encountering other pure hydrogen, so one Proton, one electron electrons get stripped away. The Protons get fuse together, but on earth. We've discovered that there's a better. Combination to go with requires less energy than it would. If we were to use pure hydrogen, it's relatively difficult to run into pure hydrogen. Here we you'd have to. You'd have to essentially split the hydrogen off of something else on. There's lots of hydrogen on earth. We have no shortage of it. Yeah, it's just connected to lots of other stuff. Yeah, so the two types of the two isotopes of hydrogen isotope by the way means that you have more or fewer neutrons than whatever the the atom typically has, but it's or it's a different number of neutrons than the base version of that atom rate, but it's same number of protons. Same number electrons so an isotope. One Isotope of hydrogen is do? which is also known as heavy hydrogen, and it has one proton and one neutron so typically you would not have a neutron with hydrogen deteriorate does have a neutron, and then you have tritium which is called also called heavy heavy hydrogen. So, it's extra heavy. He's not heavy. He's my tritium and this is a proton. The has two neutrons. So same still the same element is just a different isotope. Now duty. We've got a lot of that here on earth, yeah can be extracted from seawater. It's not radioactive or anything Yeah, it's not dangerous the, but yeah you can. You can find deteriorate in in ocean water. You cannot find tritium very easily mostly because it's not. Completely stable, it does tend to decay and It's just it has a half life of about ten years can you can get it from lithium? Yeah, you if you take lithium. The metal lithium medication, the metal lithium and you bombarded with neutrons. Then one of the things you get out of that is tritium, so that is one way to get the thirty minute we found out that tritium and deteriorate. If you try to fuse those two together, then you get helium and a neutron out of that reaction and it requires less energy than it than other combinations do. These are the current forms of fusion that are possible on our planet are are deteriorating tritium. Hey, guys hope you're enjoying this classic episode of Text We're GONNA. Take a quick break to thank our sponsors. This.