Sir John Colton Colton, Carolina, England discussed on The Political History of the United States
Hello and welcome to the political history of the United States episode two Point Three Carolina. Last week we spent our time going back and covering the province of Maryland in the case of Maryland. I admittedly should have covered it last season because yet most of those events would fit better than in the case of Carolina. However this episode is exactly where it belongs. My plan with Carolina is to have a short series of two episodes to cover its creation and early years so this is not going to be anything like our epic dive through New England or even our treatment of Virginia in Jamestown so without further delay was dive in and look at the founding of Carolina. If you look at a map you'll see. That Jamestown is located in Virginia. If you look to the south of Virginia you're going to have to go all the way down to Florida before you reach the next European colony specifically Spanish Florida. Not surprisingly the English had noticed this large amount of uninhabited land for the taking. Of course it wasn't really uninhabited. But that really doesn't pose much of a hindrance for the English. We will come back to that issue here in in a few moments the initial claim on. Carolina. Kim Back in sixteen twenty nine made by Sir Robert Heath. Carolina was intended to be a haven for the fridge. Humans now and here comes the real. Shocker Charles the I was just not feeling well he did go ahead and give the grant to heath. It was very clearly laid out that it was meant for members of the Church of England for. He's this made the entire Endeavor Alba pointless heath would never end up actually starting a colony or acting on the grant after the death of Charles. The first there was an attempt by the heath family to make their claim to the land. But Charles. The second wasn't having any of this either and declared the claim invalid. The next major tempted colonization would come. In the early sixteenth sixties the biggest hindrance to English expansion to the south had been fear of Spanish. Reprisal if you recall from episode one point six by the Middle Part of the sixteenth century Spain had become the dominant power in the Americas despite their growing influence however they kept a relatively small foothold. In what would become the United States? Well they did concede hold Florida. They never really had a sustained expansion to the north with said however the threat of Spanish aggression had long been a concern of the English which explains why there is such a large buffer zone to the south of Virginia however following the peace of Westphalia. The Spanish Empire entered into a long and gradual period of decline. Their decline as a colonial power had begun in sixteen fifty five when the English captured Jamaica with Spanish power. Now on the wane. The English felt comfortable expanding their holdings to the south of Virginia. The English had become increasingly interested in the prospects that the American colonies had in regards to their sheer amount of land added. We saw up in Maryland. English landholders realized that they could substantially increase the size of their holdings in North America beyond that the English monarch had maintain a hands off approach to this point for somebody looking to start a colony. The idea of having a literal fiefdom was interesting. Prospect in example of this type of settlement surviving was easy enough to find as well. All one had to do is look at our friend. Lord Baltimore up in Maryland here. You had an English landlord who was interested in expanding his holdings the province of Maryland offered this opportunity to do just that and discuss a moment ago. Baltimore had near total control over his colony with Spanish influence on the decline. It meant that there was less of a danger of aggression from the Spanish. Should the English settle further South Than Virginia? A Spanish decline came at a super convenient time for the English as well. The English discovered the cash crop. That was sugar. The probably sugar is that much like tobacco. It is a labor intensive and land intensive crop. Now there are various ways to deal with the incoming labor shortage this includes having more colonists over indentured servants yes slaves. The land on the other hand was a bigger concern. The islands of the West indies at were basically exhausted. There was a major shortage of available. Where you could grow sugar? And the soil itself was becoming increasingly drained of nutrients this shortage of lament that the cost to produce sugar was rapidly increasing. The effect of this is that sugar production fell completely into the hands of wealthy landlords and squeezed. Poor planters right out of the game. This increasingly angry mass was desperate for opportunities that were simply becoming less and less available throughout the islands of the Caribbean enter. Sir John Colton Colton was born in sixteen o eight as the second son of Peter Colton growing up in Dover Colton was of some means but would truly see himself ascent to prominence during the English civil war Colton spent the war fighting alongside the king and the royalists where he was marked with distinction. Earning the commission Colton would end up commend his own regiment. However as we know the royalists did not win the English Civil Wars Colton would end up having his land seized by parliamentary forces and cultured himself was forced to flee England or the relative safety of the English Colony Barbados. Colton would then spend the next decade as a sugar planter on that island. Seeing the less shortage Colton recognized that. The West indies were becoming over saturated to the point. There was little opportunity for anybody. Other than the wealthiest landlords Colton had good personal connections from his time in the war and was close personal friends with William Berkeley. The governor in Virginia Colton had become tied to the Berkeley family during the civil war. As it was William Berkeley's brother John Berkeley who would grant the commission to Colton? During that war John Berkeley is going to come up again here shortly as he is going to become one of the founders of the province of New Jersey. The situation in England had also changed by this time. Oliver Cromwell had died in Sixteen. Fifty eight upon his death is son. Richard Cromwell became the Lord Protector of England. The problem however is that Richard was definitely not his father without going into details as they are not really important for our story. Richard would end up resigning as Lord. Protector and England turned to the son of Charles. I who had been hanging out in exile in the Spanish Netherlands Charles. The second was brought back to England and was officially recognized as King on May Twenty Ninth Sixteen Sixty. I think recognized as king because to his credit. Charles the second had been telling everybody for the past decade that he was in fact the king the difference is it took until May of sixteen sixty before. Anybody really decided that it was time to listen to him or Colton. This presented him with new Charles. The second did in fact recalled those who had remained loyal not only to his father but to how Stewart in general Colton marking these check boxes found himself in a perfect position joining together with the Berkeley brothers as well as the Barbados Plantation. Owner Anthony Cooper. They set out with a plan to colonize the Carolinas. The Carolinas were a perfect place for such an ambitious project. Unlike on the islands of the West indies there was absolutely no shortage of land in North America. In fact to my Colton Carolina must have seemed like nearly infinite amounts of land. Picking up a handful of other major investors along the way including Edward Hyde. George Manek Sir. George Carteret and William Craven the Earl of Craven. The men mentioned above were not just wealthy but carried with them. Large amounts of influence monarch had been a pivotal player. Making the restoration happen. Hide was the king's chief minister. Not only did these men have money for the project but they had the power and influence to make it a reality on March twenty fourth sixteen sixty three. Their request was granted. Charles the second issue to grant to the eight men that gave them control of everything south of the thirty six parallel down to the state Mathis River near the border of Florida. Now oddly enough. I can't actually find anything to tell me. Worthy see Mathis River actually was as it appears to have been renamed so my awesome listeners. I would love an answer to this as anybody knows looking at a map. I suspect that the State Mathis River is now saint. Mary's on the Florida Georgia state line. However beyond me making what I think. Is it educated? Guess I've got zero to back me up on this so if you know the answer want to help me out please do either way Colton. And his company had just been given a very significant grant of lead. And we're now ready to jump into colonization game understanding the difficulty of getting people to pack up from England and travel across the Atlantic. The plan was to get settlers into the Carolina in a different way. Instead of looking across the Atlantic for colonists the focus was instead play some people much closer to that location. This gave several advantages over trying to get people in England up route. I as we SANJIV sound. The trip was extremely rough on one's health. Not only was the journey across the Atlantic. Excel FRAUGHT WITH DANGER. But things did not get much better. Once you arrived in colonial America the difference in climate led to long periods of acclimation and typically a high mortality rate having to learn the land and figure out how to survive took time and came at great expense to the colony. We spent a ton of time on this last season when we looked at the early struggles at Jamestown Wolves Plymouth. The Carolina investors had no interest in repeating these mistakes instead. They wanted something that will be immediately able to get on. Its own two feet and quickly become profitable recruiting. People already in. The new world meant that they will be able to avoid the worst of the process of acclamation. Secondly Colton was keenly aware of the land shortage in the West indies. He knew that there was already a large population place that was anxious for opportunity to make a profit with the land shortages. It was practically impossible for them to carve out a place in the West indies however the prospect of coming to Carolina afforded them the chance to establish their own plantations. Colton having spent a decade in exile in Barbados focused his efforts there. Laghouat named are proprietors as being the absolute proprietors of the colony. So much as it was in Maryland are a proprietors are going to essentially be running their own little kingdom. So let's spend some time looking at the charter itself and figuring out what we can learn from it in the beginning of the charter. It is interesting to take notice of the position of England in regards to the native Americans. The first paragraph grants the land in order to enlarge the empire and means of England and clean those parts of America that are not yet cultivated or planted and only inhabited by some barbarous people who have no knowledge of the Almighty God contrast that to what we discussed way back in episode one point seven as we looked at the English attempts to justify the fact that the lead was in fact not open clearly here in sixteen sixty three that has moved from being something of concern to little more than.