New England, England, New England Confederation discussed on The Political History of the United States
Well this is not going to be part of our story for today. A continues with the general general trend that there was never any one single cash crop in New England but rather numerous things that will come into play having so much diversity. In the market meant that the new England colonies were more insulated from economic downturns and that ultimately they would not have the absolute reliance on a small number of things like we're going to see in Virginia Jinya as with the economy. We see that defense is something that is ultimately going to become a regional in nature as opposed to strictly limited to any single colony. The the defense of the colony would really become paramount importance following the quote war as for the first time the threat of local Indian tribes really hit home. Dangers of the date of crabs was not a secret before that of course everybody was acutely aware of the sixteen twenty two massacre in Jamestown and it is something that was always on on the mind of the colonists however as we've discussed before in New England there wasn't really a powered and or an open Shinkin out. There have been some early skirmishes impressions that we he talked about previously but there was never anything on par with what we saw in Jamestown. Even the events that led to the quote war look dubious at best as the coloniser New England appeared to be looking for a fight despite in overwhelming. If not troubling victory in the war new Englanders realized the importance of having something in place to defend the security of the colonies what emerges from this is the New England confederation. The New England Confederation was formed in sixteen forty three and was made up of Massachusetts Plymouth. Limited new haven and Connecticut as we discussed last week Rhode Island was not invited to the party. The New England Confederation does a couple things but before we go into those things I want to get out there and dispel any thought that there was any kind of centralized government here. So don't start thinking of this as a confederation of states or anything like that. It just wasn't the New England. Confederation was at best a week alliance in function. All it really did was provide a handful of solutions for inter colonial law relations and dispute resolutions as they came up. The confederation also did provide a framework for the colonies to have a the defensive alliance. Things really don't progress much further than that. However the New England Confederation will become important during the first anglo-dutch war in the sixteen fifties? He's despite Massachusetts declining to participate. And that it will become a very major part of King Philip's war which we are going to discuss in much much more depth next season for now I simply wanted to introduce that. There was a basic plan for the mutual defense of the colonies. And let you know that this was a thing next next season we will get to see how if functions in reality we have spent the last fifteen episodes in New England and now before we move on. I'd like to take the rest of today to look at some of the overarching themes and differences between Massachusetts and the other colony. We talked in depth about Virginia. The differences between the two colonies knees is immediately apparent by looking at the reasoning behind their establishment. Jamestown was founded. Because people wanted to make money there was flowery language to make make themselves feel better that they were going over to introduce the native populations to Christianity however the truth will always be the primary motivator was financial. Everybody knew that the Spanish were making a killing down. What would become Mexico? Those coming to Jamestown were looking for their fortune. The founding of new kingland could not be any different instead of a colony founded on the sole idea of making money. New England became a refuge. For those being religiously persecuted in England I I the pilgrims who had found themselves on the wrong side of the crown and later the much larger persecution of puritans in England leading to the great migration as those heading to New England were. We're trying to escape from the religious tension at home. Their goal was to form a more perfect place to practice their faith in the words of John Winthrop they wanted to create a city city on the hill. They wanted a place that all the other puritans could look at and be amazed at their purity. This however was always going going to be a totally impossible goal and is something that was doomed to fail before it even got started. Part of the problem is that there was just never one kind of puritan new New England we have beaten the separatists versus internal reform. Difference to death at this point. And I don't plan on rehashing it all again here. However this is just one of the many differences that existed amongst the different groups Massachusetts is the center of the New England Universe and would remain noticeably intolerant throughout the sixteenth thirties ladies and forties? This is something that would lead to further fracturing of the colony by the time we rolling to the sixty and forties we have gone from two colonies Plymouth Massachusetts Bay colony and have expanded out to include Connecticut. New Haven New Hampshire Rhode Island. These differences between the groups was going to make it impossible for for New England to ever become that city on the hill that winthrop Fultz so hard to establish England. Didn't look across. The Atlantic and marvel at the Utopian appeared in land on the other side in fact the puritans back in England hardly notice what was going on across the Atlantic. They were distracted by their own concerns. which was was not running off to create some puritan haven but was rather turning England itself into that period and homeland it can be argued that the English civil war effectively typically remove the need for New England? Altogether after all persecution in England was now theoretically a thing of the past. Both William Watt and Charles himself had been removed from power and then subsequently executed. England was in the hands of parliament which was by the sixty thirties. A very puritan body Oliver Cromwell. I'm all who was well on his way to becoming the Lord protectorate a term that he used instead of the suddenly out of vote. King was himself a puritan. We have seen the intangible effects of this as well in the colonies after the sixteen forties the immigration rate from England to New England slows. Down dramatically in this way Massachusetts and New England as a whole is going to fall short of that goal becoming a city on the hill however despite not accomplishing this in New England is going to become impactful in other ways that in the sixteen forties ladies are totally lost on everybody both in New England and England itself. I didn't touch on it much at the time but one of the most critical things that I see coming out of New England at this time. Was it educated population way back in episode one point four. When we talked about religion I had spent some time talking about how for Protestants? It's it was the Bible. Not The clergy that stood at the center of the world. Are Calvinism Puritans who were certainly in agreement that the Bible should be at the very core of the religious practices recognize that it was not enough for somebody to read the Bible to them but rather than they themselves needed to be able to read the Bible what emerges is therefore is a highly literate. Society Literacy requires education which is something that would become a central part of life in New England by the sixteen forty s there there were basic requirements in place that ensured parents made sure that their children could read and write grammar. Schools would appear become part of life for children in New England. Now at at this point the concert is being able to read the Bible however in the years decades and centuries to follow that dedication to educated population is gonNA have other effects. Perfect as well knowing that such a wide portion of the population could read and write. Is it any surprise that during the seventeen sixty s it is going to be New England. That descent begins begins to form towards the crown. When political pamphlets begin to proliferate you ended up with an educated literate population to receive those pamphlets to be fair there there are a lot more reasons? Why New England is going to become the epicenter political disatisfaction and eventually rebellion during the seventeenth sixties and Seventies? We are of course going to be addressing all of those issues as they come our way however very early on we see movements any direction that make this possible specifically typically with that high literacy rate ultimately the first twenty years in New England or thirty years. If you're in Plymouth can be defined by a handful of key characteristics characteristics. Well they did not necessarily become the city on the hill they did become self sufficient in a very short period of time they develop built their own legal codes and governments and while I remain very hesitant to say that they were doing anything. Outside of what was necessary. New England was operating more or less independently of England as we have discussed. This wasn't necessarily New England making early assertions of their independence from the crown but rather it was from the fact that England and was busy preparing for and fighting civil wars. They didn't have the time to mess around with a handful of colonies. Half a world away for people like winthrop Williams Hutchinson and Bradford. This allowed them the opportunity to put themselves into leadership roles and make society in the way they deemed fit. Well there is no talk of separation and we need to be careful believing that the colonies were producing constitutions the colonies were forging their own path. Breath it is also inputted understand that this is going to sit up conditions that are going to have very long term impacts for New England and for the future feature United States at large. Well there was no talk of separation in the sixteen forty s at all. Nobody was wanting more control by England. Would they were plenty happy doing their own thing and running their own government without having to worry about interference from the home islands. The relative independence that New England is afforded adhere. The very beginning of their existence is something that they are going to not only value but they are going to come to view it as a basic right through out the next few seasons and especially next season we are going to see time and time again. What happens when England makes attempts to regain some of that control over New England and spoiler oiler alert? It generally is not going to be something that ends well. Everybody was very happy being left alone and with that I'm going to give the new Englanders. Their wish and leave them alone. We spent fifteen weeks now exploring New England and I'm finally feeling ready to sit there a story aside momentarily at least a move forward however for those of you who just love the history of New England. We are going to be back often over the next. Several seasons as New England England is going to play such a pivotal role in our story. Next time we are going to take some time and explore the introduction of slavery into the Cool Neil United States dates few things are going to affect and shape the United States more than slavery and by the time that sixteen fifty rolls around it is slowly growing in the colonies. This as always. I want to thank you all for listening. We will be back here next time to discuss the introduction of slavery for my listeners in the United States I hope you all have a wonderful things giving and for everybody else no matter where you are. I hope you have a wonderful two weeks.