Evelyn Toyo, 2010, 90% discussed on World Affairs Council
19 years until 1934 and the population does not forget that. You know, when you occupy the country, you live a mug and you know the population. Uh, feel it like, uh, like violation. That's what it was. That's why it's very relation. Most Americans don't know that we occupied the country. For 19 years. This is Something in the consciousness of Haitians. Not very much in the consciousness of the countries that actually we're doing this to Haiti. But how does this visit itself as a practical matter on the day to day if you work in the port? If you're a shopkeeper in Porter, Prince What does that have to do with your contemporary reality and the trouble that Haiti has moving forward after repeated setbacks? We had a lot of people living the rural regions to come to the cities and that started with the U. S commissioner meeting because there was no way they were going to work there. Because the U. S occupation the very first people who suffered for me all the business of eating Leslie Alexander. How do you answer that? Same question. Yeah. I just want to absolutely briefly that at the beginning of the U. S occupation of Haiti, 80% of the Haitian government's annual budget was going to pay France. And French banks That's almost 100 years. After the terms of the indemnity had been agreed to And at that point, Haiti's governmental budget 80% of it is still going to pay France for the indemnity. What most people don't know. Is that following the U. S occupation of Haiti The United States essentially became Hades New creditor. So Haiti finally pays off its debt to France. But it does so by borrowing the money from the United States and U. S banks. And so the United States becomes hatred's newest creditor, and in order to pay off that debt now to the United States, they are depleting their gold reserves. They're leaving the country utterly be raft of resources again, just to give you a sense of this in 2010. Shortly before the earthquake, Haiti sent 90% of its foreign reserves to financial institutions in Washington, D. C. To try to pay down its national debt. So the indemnity is not an ancient historic 19th century story only right? It is also a very recent contemporary reality, which is that For centuries now. Haiti has been trying to pay off what should have been its fundamental right which is to simply exist as a free and sovereign nation. The thing is that most people in the U. S. And even in France, they don't know about this. You know, they keep on repeating what you were saying. Professor Alexander like it is the poorest country of the Western universe. It's fair, but they don't know about. They don't know because I had the opportunity to speak. With students from universities in the US the Ivy leagues, they don't know about it. It's not bad of what they teach them Ministery and like Now, there are some efforts being done in France. I know also in the US to talk about it. Mhm and I think that part of the problem about people's ignorance regarding this history. And this contemporary reality about Haiti is that Haiti then somehow becomes apologized. It's like what is wrong with Haiti. But it is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere. You know, poor Haiti. It becomes this sort of victimization of Haiti. But it's pathologize in such a way that it's like, why can't those black people govern themselves? And the reality is that we have to come to terms with why Haiti is in the circumstances that it it is in it is by design as the U. S been content. To have a badly run Haiti off its coast of since the revolution, since, uh, the world's first successful slave rebellion. Established the world's first black led republic. I mean, I would go a step farther than that. I would say that Not only has the US been content, but I think the U. S has desired. Haiti to be an unstable, vulnerable nation. Um, from the time of its founding, the United States had the United States government historically and contemporary, Lee Has sought to, um disrupt Hades internal politics to topple leaders and insert people that they felt were more amenable to US economic interests. And it does, in fact, stem all the way back to the 19th century. Um, throughout much of the 19th century, for example, and this is something about US history and US foreign policy that most people don't know. The United States repeatedly over the course of decades, sought to re colonise and reimpose slavery in Haiti. Um some of the most famous attempts at that took place at times when Haiti was internally unstable, and I think again the historical context for this is is important because a lot of the internal Uh, political instability that takes place in Haiti during the 19th century is the result of problematic policies that Haitian leaders put into place in an effort to try to meet the terms of the indemnity right. The Haitian government is finding itself economically strapped Having to pay. The French government but not really having the financial resources in order to be able to do it, and so they impose problematic, exploitative policies. That are naturally undesirable to the residents of the nation. For example, they impose heavy and impossible to meet taxation policies. Trying to find ways to raise money to pay France and then people naturally rebel against that, right, So there's constant upheaval in Haiti. The United States government capitalizes on that instability. And repeatedly attempts to go into Haiti. Take control, seize control over the government and reimpose slavery. They attempted to do it in 18, 45 and 18 51 in 18 54 all the way through 18 56 really all the way up until the outbreak of the U. S. Civil War. The United States government attempts multiple times. To go in, seize control over the Haitian government and reimpose slavery, Um, in the territory and, of course throughout the 20th century. Um, it's something that the United States repeatedly continues to do. We discussed the occupation, the military occupation by the United States of Haiti for almost 20 years. And then, of course, we see in the case of the Duvalier regime and numerous presidencies that have taken place in Haiti. Since then the United States deliberately intervening. And supporting the toppling of various political leaders in an attempt to assert governmental authority in Haiti that they think will best serve US economic interests. Evelyn Toyo, Go ahead, but but from the political, uh, aspects there is also the economic aspects. We are mostly not dependent of the US for everything. We balding things on the U. S. Do guys a idea. The region of money that was, you know, very famous for is life and now most of the guys that we consume Come from the U. S. Hey, the on the products that we have come from the U. S. So the 80 is a body. Also the U. S student production in our national production is all the way below all the way we go. You know. So this is about also of not only the occupation but intervention of the US while the years you know the force us, you know, for example, for the For the book, we had our own box. They teamed them. You know, they on fear and they make us import other.