Tolman discussed on In the Classroom
That note that each point each piece of evidence has warrant and when writing your paper some warrants and be explicit while others can be implicit if it's explicit. You're going to be including it in your paper. Implicit means that you would leave it out. So it's not necessary to always include warrants. But you always need some warrant whether implicit or explicit to link the evidence to the claim now based on my experience many learners struggle with the warrant this is usually the most challenging part of developing the tolman method is to make sure that the warrant is clear and i would rather have learners err on the side of writing a very obvious warrant than maybe not mentioning when you should and this is something that we're gonna work on throughout the development of your literature review especially how to properly articulate the warrant within your body paragraphs all right so. Let's move on now to the backing. I think is a backing. The backing for me is of of all of the different elements of the tolman method. The one that you probably in most cases will not need. The backing would be required. You can think of the backing as a foundation. It's there to provide more information about the warrant think of it as adding additional logic or additional reasoning that supports the the want right so again this will be. We'll look at your papers will deal with the backing on ace by case basis But again this is for those cases where maybe stating the warrant alone would need further reasoning further information right to make that point clear all right now. The last two the counterclaim rebuttal. These are two very important aspects of building an argument. Think of the counterclaim. Remember i mentioned before that By definition claim is something that is debatable. That is there are two sides to any good claim any sound claim so counterclaim is going to be the opposite. It's going to be the The opposing viewpoint of the initial claim. So when you're developing your paper whether you develop a counterclaim or include that within the same paragraph of the initial claim or you decide to present the counterclaim in subsequent paragraph. you need to think about how need to develop counterclaims that support your initial claims right so introduce counterclaims either within the paragraph that contains the initial argument or claim and or in the subsequent body paragraph that comes after the body paragraph with all initial claims.