"Today the mystery of the iphone six but first we need to go back to nineteen o four and the creation of the vacuum tube before the invention of the Internet. We needed computers. And before we had personal computers we needed integrated circuits and before we add integrated circuits. We had vacuum tubes. You get the idea. Vacuum tubes were the electronic electronic circuitry component required to make telephones radio television and work in the nineteen hundreds to put the limitations of the vacuum tube into perspective. I'll describe an early computer. Consider it filled a twenty by forty foot room. Wade's thirty tonnes and used more than eighteen. Thousand Vacuum Tube so as only fifty percent operational because most of the the time. The technicians were replacing burned out tubes. These tubes auden heated up the room to a hundred twenty degrees now. And William William Shockley the so-called father the transistor that transfers through switch that Apple Faisal flow of electronic signals to create ones and Zeros technology. College over time shrank it down to the size of a virus. But how small is that. Here comes the iphone six. For example sample. It uses the a eight chip which is made up of two billion two billion transistors. There's transistors are now created at the ten nanometer level to put this into perspective considered that a sheet of paper is one hundred thousand nanometers thick so in order to create a ten nanometer sheet of paper one would have to slice a single sheet of paper. Ten Thousand Times thinner to reach that ten nanometer level. You can now you see the growth in vacuum to two nanometer transistor now back to William Shockley. When Shockley semiconductor began operations. Everything thing appeared to be going according to plan shortly after opening shop and recruiting the best and brightest engineers across the country Shockley and his former former Bell lab colleagues Walter Bryan and John Barr Dean. Were notified they all had won the Nobel Prize in physics after after the Nobel Prize celebrations. Everything went downhill quickly. Shockley was known as a brilliant engineer but a horrific manager. He put his employees through a battery of test including psychological tests. Intelligent tests even lie detector tests. Shockley also posted employee salaries publicly publicly and recorded phone calls. He was paranoid individual who believed his workers. Were stealing trade secrets and sabotaging projects. So therefore he wouldn't share findings with his research staff at an insult injury. Shockley was a racist who believe blacks were genetically inferior was subpar implore IQ. So they shouldn't have kids in one thousand nine hundred fifty seven. The aircraft Shockley semiconductor lab started up. The division reached thirty employees. Eight eight of the employees Sheldon Roberts. Eugene Kleiner Victor Greenwich Chair last Julius Blank. Cheen Hornet Robert. Noyce and Gordon Moore. Finally said enough is enough and decided to mutiny. Was the best operation for them. You could say the rest is history. They went on to form Fairchild"