Researchers find bacteria residing in guts of mice come from mother and remain nearly constant over many generations

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Transmission more than a real world setting because the mice never come into contact. So mice from one line never come into direct contact with different line. And so we know another people have also have shown apes we've looked at this in chimpanzees and other people looked at this in that Boone's that social interactions allow the transmission of gut bacteria two so for this paper, we didn't allow contact between the lines. So in that sense. We're favoring vertical. Transmission? Yeah. Inbreeding them. Also do that to exactly and the experiment was designed well to identify bacteria that can be horizontally transmitted in the absence of direct contact things could be transmitted through the air, for instance, with through the through vector like Nantel handler. And what did you learn about those articulate bacteria, the ones that were coming into these mice on this horizontal route one thing that jumped out right away was that more closely related gut. Bacteria tended to be more similar in their transmission. Okay shroud. At least for some parts of the bacterial lodging. That's interesting because it suggests that there are some traits that are nearly conserve that determine transmission mode of bacteria. So that opens up some questions about what the streets. Are. We were look at that a little bit in this experiment. And we found it perhaps not surprisingly aerobic bacteria bacterial that can live in the presence of oxygen were more likely to be horizontally transmitted than obligated Anna robes, which dive they're exposed to oxygen. We also found several bacterial genera- in mice that displayed evidence of horizontal transmission. Those bacterial genera- tended to be the same 'Bacterial Jenner are known to cause disease and humans. There would be something that would be damaging to the animal maybe prevent it being passed down is actually bad for the microbes, fitness. If you're a bacterium, and you have all some kind of pathogenic effects to your host, your vertically transmitted and you kill off your host. Evolutionary dead end for you. Right. So vertical transmission is thought to disfavor the pollution of pathogenicity. Whereas horizontal transmission kind of opens up possibilities of your because you no longer rely on a single hose lineage, you can just jump to the next lineage. If you kill off your initial host that prediction is exactly borne out by our data in help us better understand or investigate new bacteria or infection and say, oh, well, it looks like it has some characteristics already familiar with these types of studies. So we looked in particular foodborne infections and hospital associated infections, and what are exist is that a lot of those infections arise because of opportunities for transmission. And it's it's simply just the propensity of microbes to be horizontally transmitted predicts the rate at which they cause infection humans, and so it it's reasonable to start to think about ways that we can cut. Those transmission routes could study like this ever be done in people. I know we touched on this briefly before I think the difficulty with people is the long generation times of humans the generations twenty years or so in humans, it's going to take two hundred years or more to conduct analogous experiment. Humans that we just had took three years in mice. Yeah. And of course, the control environment. Art, right. Yeah. And that's a whole nother issue. That would be impossible. I think eventually we will be able to start to understand the long-term. Inheritance? Multigeneration inheritance of gut microbes as time progresses and techniques for characterizing the gut microbiome humans continue to improve. We're going to eventually have long-term multigenerational data sets just might take take some time. Fifty one hundred years. Okay. Andy, thank you so much for talking with me. Oh, thank you. Any Muller is an assistant professor in the department of ecology at biology at Cornell University, you can find a link to his research science, MAG dot org slash podcast, say. Tuned for gen Bill Beck's interview with David Lazar about his book politics with the people building directly Representative

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