John Prescott, Physicist, Two Hundred Seconds discussed on This Week in Science


The show thank you so much for your support we cannot do this show without us and we're back with more this week in science we are back and now it's that time in the show you for this week in what science done for me and you know what it's empty I have no more I have no more from anyone nope I have no more I have none if I missed Fiore's let me know but otherwise I have none wait somebody is raising their hand here next to me hold on are hold on I think we have a recruit you have you have something that science has done for you lately okay come here what's your name hi okay science done for you lately well will will this was a while ago it doesn't matter you have been cheered up okay sure member and we've got the flour as with always feed the cats and leave right lillies are toxic to cats and or just not lilies four cats and like this thing for my mom one day and the cat's like we just found stellar with all these like orange powder on her face new fade out actually toxic and then we actually had to send her to the vet so then they could actually wash out stuff so and learn that then still in Kathy would be dead so I learned I learned something very similar about Donald Leslie other stuff was also poised so we had as well okay what did you learn Justin sciences done for me lately I went to a conference on animal intelligence that was presented by friends while whose research raw awesome yeah and I I found this is don exc who we think are not disgusted by anything because they will if other dogs rear quarters they will not even sometimes eat who poop yeah yeah the dogs are disgusted by citrus because it turns out it's hectic for them and and they had a a video demonstration of dog that licked researchers in Dr This there was a disclaimer is it is actually toxic to them but it a huge discuss three action from from a lime I think it was something like this so yeah there are things that are toxic animals also dogs don't back any chocolate there are things that that will surprise us in the world in terms of what is a toxic thing and what is something that is knocked toxic to other life forms and these are things that science can teach us that it figures out yes thank you very much for that guy she ate that thank you for joining the show even message on our facebook page that's this week in science on facebook now go to bed no it's on some more science news what do we have to talk about next prime editor thing GonNa talk about some prime editing is like editing that's just at its prime is just so crisp and it's perfect well it is better are supposedly than other genetic editing this is prime editing it's a new tool similar to crisper a new G. editing system that has been developed by the broad institute David Lose Lab who is also involved was also involved in a lot of the crisper cast nine system development and over the years but they've been attempting to develop a more accurate system because there's a problem with crisper has nine is that it's not always accurate when it chops up the DNA there are errors and sometimes there's what are called off target effects which is the gene that you want to put into DNA maybe gets put in the wrong places and so some depending on where it's put it can have a negative deleterious effects although although I will I will interject really quickly there was a big report that was issued recently that I should go find it bring to the show astronaut why didn't bring it where they where they did illustrate that the viability others off targets wasn't as big as deal as had been previously report like you like the deteriorating effects actually going to be that bad noticeable if you're willing crisper a lifelong it's not really going to be that there's enough random mutation that takes place within the larger genome that having some off target effects aren't really going to be as negative viet once feared not as negative but there's still some negative and so the accuracy is I mean if you want to be specific about where you put an edit in our genome you want a system that's accurate and crisper has nine and is just not quite accurate enough for a lot of people stay there have been other developments based on different castes systems so there's a cast twelve Christopher has twelve system that's involved and a couple of other permutations that have been developed over the years and there are other gene editing tools like zinc finger nuke liaises are also used to chop into DNA and make edits to the genome but again it's the how well does it work how accurate is it and each of these tools is potentially useful in in some uses some situations but not necessarily all of them now the This new precise editing tool I'm editing as it is being called they published in nature this week about the tool and it it uses the caste system isn't US crisper so it's not the repeated the PAL andromeda repeats of the Crisper but it does use the cast molecule and some other variants to to snip one strand the and it follows the reason it's called prime editing is that it follows from the it three prime to five primes if you're looking at the chromosomes they are labeled based on the ends of the chromosomes as they the Rian the five they're opposites from each other so they're they're back their kind of flip flopped too to each other and and the way that it runs as from three to five minutes called the prime strand it goes the DNA editing stuff goes along that Prime Strand DNA and so the editing tool edits this pride the prime strand and so it knicks it and just what does what instead of like the crisper cast nine which cuts both strands of DNA this new system makes little nick in one of the strands and that allows it to put in the edit that it wants to put in and then the DNA gets that was was there before gets taken away and cut off and so now you just have a new sequence that's inserted into the genome on that chromosome and then it the prime editor Knicks the other non edited side just one little nick and it allows the cellular her repair machinery to come along and fix it and win it comes along to fix that little nick in the the Second Strand it sees the new sequence of DNA and so it gets rid of all the unmatching amino acids all the base pairs that aren't supposed to be there anymore so you end it ends up with the cellular machinery putting in the complementary Strand of genetic serials you're really only inserting half of it and then the cell itself makes the complementary Strand but anyway it's this it's supposed to be very accurate and supposed to there they are promising or they're estimating that it will be able to be used on some ninety percents of disease associated DNA variants in our database which is somewhere around seventy five thousand variant at this point in time and and so they're estimating that it could have a real real huge impact in to genetic gene editing therapies down the road for taking these diseases that are genetically based and editing stuff in very accurately now that said there was a thread on twitter from a researcher named Jonathan Wild who goes into it a little bit he says okay okay hey this is really cool but it's also being really hyped up and the reality of putting stuff into humans and making it work in not even just humans that living animals is a far cry from having something work in a dish and their systems at what they tested it on the cells they looked at in in a dish that they that they worked on it it didn't work really well in neurons it didn't work really well in Cardi Jack Cells which are cells that might be really important to do editing and and so another another issues potentially the size of this system is fairly the large and if you're trying to get it passed the blood brain barrier how do they do that they haven't even talked about that yet at this point they're just at the very very early stages as of saying look we have a new tool we have to figure out how to actually make it work in stuff so if it's using the mechanism behind this but if it's using the mechanism available to to allow a change in a neuron these are very consistent very conserved very important system so perhaps it's the underlying machinery that's just not there which would also be the machinery that would allow patients to take place yeah so yeah yeah the machine is the machinery going to be there in all the cells that's exactly it all these are all the cell types going to be able to do what you want it to do and they don't know that yet they haven't tested it at all in all this L. types so it's it's making some assumptions the the claims that they're making are based on assumptions that are as of yet unproven yeah anyway it's pretty interesting it's a new gene editing system I just it's I think it just goes to show kind of just how fast moving long this the field of genome editing is these days things are new new discoveries new tools new molecules things are being constantly updated implemented and it's it's really exciting and also if people have not seen the netflix documentary unnatural election yet I highly recommend it I watched it this weekend very good series on gene editing from the perspective of health from the perspective of environment and also from the perspective of personal like biohacking so people doing stuff for themselves so it takes a lot of different perspectives and it's a very broad documentary that is is created over four parts therefore our long parts to it really good commend it gene editing it's big right now around so hot right now so hot just like quantum computing I remember yeah I we were talking about it and this week Google announced that it has Kuan Supremacy. What does that mean exactly it's the quantum EST it's the crunchy dimissed yes exactly so the definition of quantum supremacy in essence is it was originally the concept was originally described by a theoretical physicist named John Prescott Oil and the idea is that it's a situation in which quantum computers outpace conventional computers by achieving some calculation doing some the thing that quantum that the that conventional computers are completely at a loss for are unable to where it's like oh we can't user regular computer to do this I guess we have to use our quantum computers that's the point of quantum supremacy and so the your demonstration they say's that they they had their fifty three cubit quantum computer do a simulation that took something like two hundred milliseconds for it to run and this it's the their computers aimed sycamore by the way Sycamore took two oh two hundred seconds to repeat as a certain sampling process to do.

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