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Of developing the disease free to tell me about ill disease what is that I'm glad I'm glad I can talk about that because the X. the rated graph actually can go beyond us detecting early decay advanced forms of decay so the parent dawn's room is this hammock that keeps the to the anchored in bone and beneath that hammock otherwise be be chipping off T. those be put forces on on them is to be eaten too and things so so this little ecosystem that the parrot on SRAM is is very very very much and homeostasis and balance now because the sub that just the way mall talked if we have a bars film and plaque that developed over time it attracts certain bacterial bugs that love to spit out home food products now in the case of periodontal disease these homes with products actually seep into that crevice and as they get deeper and deeper the course destruction of that attachment and that is what we call the pocket that the Dennis will probe and and it's a tough tough ecosystem to get back to normal so we strive in dentistry to try to to keep gums healthy to keep the inflammatory products that are the result of improper or not so good oral hygiene up very much at the optimum and that involves diet it involves tooth brushing flossing up being aware of of how you teach the position I'm taking care of each of these us structures that nature has given us of for so many functions and take care of it by in in multiple ways so I think I think I captured the essence of I want to ask about a little bit more about that does gum disease have any indication about diseases in other parts of your body road rage yes well the oral cavity to be honest is is truly the portal to the rest of the body I mean that we know because we connected to the oral cavity due to the to the rest of the body and I must say it was for centuries now we've known about the implications of oral and systemic conditions so so the back to the produce these harmful substances of the day so cute it's in the system and very often of the travel to distance sites so there is an association now building up between periodontal disease and susceptible heart valves all of periodontal disease and pregnancy and early both term rates there's also a connection believe it or not between periodontal disease and Alzheimer's where the enzymes that all off of found that actually common to both conditions so clearly the oral cavity is the portal it's it is very much a taking care of oral health is almost imperative for general health and I'll I'll give you what seems to be a negative answer of but but if you think of what happens in the old cab if you have dental a too sick it's one of the worst things you can enjoy your if you have a child who is born with a cleft palate who can dress feed eats normally and requires extensive surgeries if you have an autoimmune disease where your salivary glands are no longer functioning normally all you've had cancer radiation therapy and they don't work so you have a dry mouth all you have chances that a detective too late in the oral cavity and you have to have half your tongue removed and half your lower jaw removed all of that means that that this part to be protected so vigorously in dentistry is really important for overall health and well being hi there and there's another dental routine you might do every day without even thinking about it if you drink tap water in the U. S. yeah chances are good that there's fluoride in in and that is not an accident and when swallowed early in life fluoride helps your gold teeth develop with a stronger kind of enamel than it might otherwise have and later in life fluoride that touches the tooth surface can help weaken spots re mineralized as we talked about to offend cavities I wanna bring on another cast though to talk about some new research there's such a thing as too much of a good thing research shows that excessive fluoride in children can actually lead to weaker teeth has that happened doctor red regal accrues from NYU school of dentistry is here with this do research on how fluoride effects calcium flow into the cells welcome to science Friday thank you very much okay did you thank you so how can fluoride be too much of a good thing but too much of a good thing not sure that that's what I would say but what we were saying in our research that fluoride it's a very good thing in the right amounts and so it's been known for decades that when there's an excess of fluoride ingested because of the disease or defect cold dental fluorosis so what we would try to address is how the self manage the fluoride and and what are the effects in the cells caused by fluoride an excuse to exit the fluoride that is so what what is going on with the with the excess of flooring so what we found in our research is that the calcium levels within the cells with distracted and we looked at a number of enamel fills we looked at primary cells taken from laboratory animals and so on and so it's important for self maintain the appropriate levels of calcium within the cell phone a number of reasons and so how do the cells maintain this level the cabinet when within the cell it's one of those is to move calcium from the cytosol into the one of the organ else called in to pass me criticism and Nick and a plus we took him needs calcium so to do this operation there is a pump in the membrane of the particular which transfers Kelton from this side of soul into the inside of the reticulum and so when this bomb disrupted cells on the Gulf stress thing our experiments I think what we did is we we looked at why the pump was not functioning optimally in self treated with excessive fluoride so this is trying to mimic what we see in the defects not in the right amounts of fluoride which is good the only doing the disease state what we found is that of that is fluoride sorry what was the magnitude of that fluoride exposure about nineteen million and something a little bit lower so this the levels of fluoridation the scene the waters of of the staff can for example where the so naturally occurring waters contain at least amount of fluoride where can lead a floor Dacian as one one part per million I'm sorry thank you but only one hosted a time I'll let me just remind everybody that I'm I'm I replaced at the science Friday from W. NYC studios so read we go you're not saying that we're a week until to be afraid of consuming too much fluoride you said that already but you also say that kids should be prevented from swallowing their toothpaste that has fluoride in yes that's right I think one of the major issues in developing countries is that there's an excessive consumption of fluoridated toothpaste so when you add that ingestion Floyd that tends to happen younger children said the ages of two three or four for example and when they do you brush your teeth without supervision this can happen and if you got that consumption of fluoride to the drinking of water and things like that his I. Q. malaise of the time and said that can have a negative effect selling how many places around the world is this a problem in many places around the world is a minor problem in the United States we have very good controls of of fluoridation of water some areas of the United States I have is sleight elevated levels of fluoride naturally occurring in the water but is very prevalent in many countries in in India for example many millions of people are at risk do you have floral sees in East Africa because of volcanic activity there the with his natural you contain high levels of Floyd so it's a very important problem across the globe check the red Rego roulette cruise associate professor and N. Y. U.'s college of dentistry thank you so much for taking time to be with us today my pleasure Dr mark well did you want to jump in on that yeah I'm sorry I right if we just need to make sure that the public is is an understanding that the war the water levels of fluoride that we see in the United States of point one point seven to one part per million and what rodrico was referring to was nineteen times that we don't see that even in our worst areas in the United States with fluoride exposure in the water it this is this is not the the type of cell issues that he was referring to are not specific to what we see here in the United States yes could I add a dimension of understanding I've got a minute till the broken okay so what what is really important is that teeth form in utero sorties all wonderful biologic cold wet to record exposures to environmental toxins out which could be for all right of if it goes over a certain amount but the service wonderful registers of exposure to environmental toxins during prenatal development or during pregnancy so so when we consume hide all all exposed to high levels of this final eight which is a common ingredient of plastics and different phthalates it gets recorded in teeth as little I pull mineralization old little white lesion defects so teeth all biological basin very important indicators of exposure to the bad stuff that be exposed to interesting and fluoride is is an important example thank you could be we're gonna come back and talk some more with that doctor Wolfe and doctor just Susan and we have all kinds of questions of the rest of the hour we're gonna just take all the fun questions in tweet questions we have all kinds of stuff like when it comes to recede you know what is what is happening there what is what what I got so many I can't bring them up before he could brake I number eight four four seven two four eight two five five you can also tweeted says a lot of people doing it so I fry ask a dentist returns after the break I'm not rich later this.