James Dale, Jennifer Dowden, Kevin Dish discussed on Freakonomics Radio
Was amazing. Banana news RJ to line three with a clear winner. Some the other genetic modifications did well to three of the other lines had relatively high levels resistance way. There was twenty percent less plants author infected Dade which was to us Nic critical outcome. Rarely he get that sort of percentage succession, the so two things they tell me a pretty excited about that. And there was something else to be excited about the other really important thing we found was that the Jane will be put in this G I, Jane none unle occasion, these wall bananas. But it does how Kazin Kevin dish. It just doesn't work very well. Unsanitary actually really, really important because there's a new technology known as gene, editing. It's different attained modifications, gene, editing is we can go into the DNA and just tweet genes that are already there, such very, very close to some natural processes. And so that's why we now starting to, to figure out how we can tweak the Jane in Kevin dish. To make them resistant. But that actually adding any new James toll this type of gene, editing is made possible by something known as crisper, which is I'm sure, you know, stands for clustered regularly spaced short Powell dramatic repeats. We spoke with one of Christopher's inventors, the biochemist. Jennifer Dowden back in two thousand seventeen for an episode called evolution accelerated at its core. The crisper gene, editing technology is, is now giving human beings, the opportunity to change the course of evolution and human beings have been affecting evolution for a long time. Right. But now there's a technology that allows very specific changes to be made to DNA that gives us a new level of control. Crisper is terrific. And so, yes, we are using crisper the moment. So this would seem to be super amazing. Banana news. There are. Potentially two ways to save the cabin dish from Panama disease by using crisper to tweak its genetic code or by. Introducing new resistant genes from other bananas. Either way, the banana industry must be thrilled by the solutions that James Dale is proposing. Right. We asked Andrew byles, former CEO of bananas and pineapples at Chiquita dreams Dale, he is working on moral GM approach of that, of course, is not so acceptable societally. So some people will say, I don't mind genetic modification of those will say they do indeed, a sizable fraction of consumers in the US, and especially in Europe, considered genetically modified crops to be risky despite assurances to the contrary from scientists, like James style. And I think that's way we filed we really haven't got the message across. This is one of the most incredibly highly regulated technologies in the world. So the sorts of things have we got through to demonstrate safeties amazing. The objection to GMO crops is also curious in light of the fact that traditional plant breeding without which many, many fewer of us would be alive is itself a form of genetic modification, Jennifer Dowden. Again, I think it's important for, for people to appreciate that, first of all, humans have been modifying plants for on time, genetically, and for this literally thousands of years. Exactly. Thank goodness. And you realize, well, I'm glad there's plant breeding, but, you know, the way that that's been done. Traditionally is to use chemicals or even radiation to introduce genetic changes into seeds, and then plant breeders will select for, for plants that have traits that they want the opportunity here with gene, editing in plants is to be able to make changes. Precisely not to drag along traits that you don't want, really the difference between what we're doing an end conventional breeding he should I move fastened.