Al Pacino, Joe Pesci, Netflix discussed on Marketplace

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Actor nominees Al Pacino and Joe Pesci the Irishman is now playing in theaters and on Netflix why is Mariah Carey's All I Want for Christmas is you back at the top of the Billboard hot one hundred chart twenty five years after it was first released that story is coming up in the next segment of All Things Considered next time on city arts lectures performer artist and now published poet John Lithgow I'll talk with New Yorker staff writer and humorist Calvin Trillin about a career that spans film stage and satirical farce that's next time on city arts lectures here on KQED city arts lectures comes on tonight at eight o'clock America scores on a global test of reading skills are poor again I'm Josh would Johnson how should school communities raise their standards and who gets to judge next time on one A. B. with us from one a tonight at eleven this is All Things Considered from NPR news I'm ari Shapiro and Ahmadi Cornish or than five thousand years ago a woman in Scandinavia chewed on a piece of birch rudimentary chewing gum of sorts that as NPR's merit Kennedy reports has proven to be a remarkable source of ancient DNA this dark little blob of birch page would be pretty easy to overlook an archaeological site was initially it's a black brown substance that was obtained by heating birch bark but Honda Schroeder appeal you geneticist at the university of Copenhagen says a student coming from the site brought it to him with a question can we get the in and out of this and you know you like well we know haven't really tried so let's give it a go people in the stone age would choose the substance and use it as a form of glued to put sharp points on the weapons they may have also used it as a kind of medicine so these were clues that it might contain DNA but the researchers expected it to be difficult to extract it's still quite challenging to get to you know have complete engine human genome from human remains the DNA sequencing went better than they could have ever expected they were able to reconstruct a complete human genome sure this is the first time that an entire engine human genome has been extracted from anything other than human bones or teeth the team published their findings in the journal nature communications and the DNA tells us a lot about this woman who lived about five thousand seven hundred years ago she had this really you know striking combination of dark hair and dark skin and and and the whites Schroeder says those features were common to other hunter gatherers in this area at the time which is now an island in Denmark he says that even though farmers were beginning to settle in northern Europe the woman's DNA does not show any traces of former ancestry and even beyond her DNA the scientists were also able to extract ancient microbes from her mouth there were sealed in the ancient gone they found traces of a virus and they also extracted remnants of what could have been the woman's last ZTE meal doc and hazel nuts sure says it's unique to have DNA traces of microbes and clues about diet all from a single individual it's really the you know the rich picture from this kind of inconspicuous small lump of birch resin Herford molecular archaeologist Christina Warner says she thinks it was incredibly creative to try to recover information from the ancient chewing gum and the fine says a lot about her field right now as our technology that we're using get stronger we're starting to realize that much more of the past is preserved and we ever thought she recently tried analyzing chewed up stems from a cave in Mexico though unfortunately little information was preserved as technology has dramatically improved Warner says scientists should try to test more objects for DNA that they find on archaeological sites gives me inspiration to go out and start looking for him for more of these unusual contexts in which we might find interesting information a pretty storied legacy for a piece of gum Merrick Kennedy and pureness after twenty five years the number one the song on Billboard's hot one hundred chart is Mariah Carey's All I Want for Christmas is you only one he thousands of new holiday songs have been released since but none has become an during standard like this one Chris clinic reports on the challenge of trying to crack the tiny you will type cannot.

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