Cholera, Plague, Cancer discussed on Mysteries, Myths
Many businesses have closed in the United States and most other countries with a high incidence of the disease and many employees have lost jobs with drastic personal and economic consequences. It sometimes feels as though we're at the mercy of a relentless invader but our defenders the real heroes of this battle are the armies of first responders healthcare workers and support personnel who are quite literally putting themselves at mortal risk to care for the sick and they are doing it with limited resources. They as well as the workers who keep the supply. Chains operational are deserving of our deepest gratitude in the US as in many countries the numbers of those infected with Cova nineteen and the heartbreaking numbers of deaths are increasing daily at this writing the CDC the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates over. Six hundred thousand confirmed and presumptive cases in the United States with more than twenty five thousand deaths the World Health Organization W. H. O. Estimates nearly two million cases globally with more than one hundred thousand deaths because not everyone has been tested the number of those infected and possibly recovered without confirmation is. An underestimate is difficult to conceive. What the number of cases and deaths they will be even from week to week until therapies. Vaccines are globally available. Meanwhile we're experiencing the tragic and frightening loss of loved ones and friends without knowing when it will stop as fearful as this viruses imagine how terrifying. It must have been during the pandemics of the past. During for instance. The Spanish flu the H one in one virus which didn't originate in Spain but which country published the first reports of the illness. It is estimated that some five hundred million people were infected worldwide from nineteen eighteen to nineteen nineteen with as many as fifty million that is ten percent of infected people dying from the viral disease. There was no vaccine that time and know pharmaceuticals for effective treatment. The measures to avoid infection relied mainly on the same ones recommended. Now physical distancing good hygiene quarantining. The sick eventually the Spanish food out because they were no more hosts people either died recovered and became immune successfully avoided infection. The fourteenth century robotic leg which was caused by a bacterium rather than virus is also estimated to have killed fifty million people at thirty to sixty percent of those infected or about one third of the European population. The first wave of the black death lasted twenty five years with successive ways occurring. Until the cause of the disease the bacterium your Scindia Pestis was discovered. Five hundred years later after the bacteria was identified in eighteen ninety four separately by doctors Alexander Years and and get a subtle Chaba. Saburo a French physician. Dr Paul Louis. Simond trace the route of transmission from rats to infected fleas humans in sixteen sixty five sixteen sixty six. Nearly one quarter of the population of London died from the plague caused by the same pathogen as the Black Death. Y pestis descriptive account of that. Perilous time is given by Daniel Defoe author of such books as Robinson crusoe am all flanders in seventeen twenty two. He published a journal of the plague year. A novel based on a great plague of London in which he gives a fictional but historically credible account of the course of the disease he writes it was about the beginning of September sixteen. Sixty four that I among the rest of my neighbors heard an ordinary discourse that the plague was returned again in Holland for had been very violent there and particularly Amsterdam and Rotterdam in the sixteen sixty three with her they say it was brought some said from Italy others from the Levant among some goods which are brought home by Turkey. Fleet others said it was brought from candia others from Cyprus. It mattered not from whence it came but all agreed it was coming to Holland again and from Europe. The plague traveled to London. The author gives the number of burials per week by parish and observe their increase over time and by season defoe has his narrator question with the deadly sickness is a divine instrument and he concludes it. It is in that vein narrator decides to cast himself entirely upon the goodness and protection of the Almighty given that however defoe goes on to describe the mini countermeasures that city officials take to contain the plague including banning public gatherings instituting greatest sanitary measures effective burying the dead quarantining homes with infect the residents all of which indicate knowledge of the extreme infectiousness of the disease even if the vectors of infection were not yet known with limited knowledge of medicine overall energy to fo- tries to understand how and where the diseases transmitted and who are the most vulnerable. He concludes interesting. Make quote that. It was not the sick people only from home. The play was immediately received by others that were sound but the well that is one could get the plague from someone who has not yet had the symptoms. Despite the fact that dafoe attributes the origins and ending of the plagued divine intervention. He attributes its propagation to natural means. Does it might be argued. Because of his fact based observations that he was a nascent epidemiologist the term epidemiology is derived of course from epidemic cove in nineteen so named by. Who Comes from the first two letters of Corona Co plus? The first two letters virus the eye than the disease code and the nineteen from the first appearance of the disease in China in two thousand nineteen and nineteen. Let me preface this by saying I'm not an epidemiologist. Although with some exceptions I have spent most of my career in the Department of Epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health now called the hard t h Chan School of Public Health. I began as a research assistant to the department chairman calculating that time statistics on the Association of Radiation and cancer intern. I became a project. Data Manager for a multi country study breast cancer and lastly the Managing Editor of an International Journal of Cancer Epidemiology. I've had the privilege of working with many of the exceptional faculty and staff that department and in particular three notable epidemiologist. Dr Brian McMahon Chairman of the Department Dimitrius Drakopoulos the subsequent department chairman and also chair of the similar department in the University of Athens and Dr Richard Munson professor in the departments of deputy meteorology and environmental health as well as editor of the Journal. Cancer Causes and control. Doctors McMahon Coppola's although epidemiology as an independent discipline is said to a begun in the mid nineteen hundreds the first credited founder of epidemiology with John Snow physician born England in eighteen thirteen. During the period of eighteen forty six to eighteen sixty there was a worldwide pandemic of cholera a highly lethal intestinal disease that causes diarrhea and vomiting and in eighteen fifty four. There was an outbreak in the Soho district of London were. Dr Snow lived and practiced. He observed that the cluster of cases with more than six hundred people dying from the disease was located specifically at or around a particular locale broad street. At that time it was commonly thought that the disease was conveyed by breathing. Bad Air called. The mayas matic theory miasma meaning basically a motorist night air snow on the contrary believe the cholera was caused by contaminated water in London in the mid eighteen. Hundreds there were no residential sewage water lines so that people got their water from communal sources for example the town pump and because people dump their sewage into rivers or open cess pools snow deduce that that contamination worked its way into the water supply and because of the specific location of the cases and deaths. His suspicion fell upon the broad street. Water pump how Dr Snow came to. This conclusion is the resulted as identifying who the cases were mapping where they lived an asking where they obtain their drinking water. He also tracked those people who did not get cholera such as inmates of local prison. Which had its own drinking. Water supply the subjects. Who DIDN'T GET CHOLERA? Became a natural control group case control studies have since become the backbone of many epidemiologic investigations? Although snow couldn't identified the specific source of the contamination from the broad street. Water pump. He recommended to the town officials that the pump handle be removed so that people could not drink that water. The administrators reluctantly did so but even though cholera in Soho declined afterwards. The town officials still did not believe there was any evidence the Association of Cholera with water contamination and there would have stayed had not an adversary of the sewage. Tried to prove Dr Snow Wong Minister. Henry whited believed that the broad street cholera was an intervention by God in his zeal. Reverend Whitehead interviewed residents of the area expecting to refute snow instead. He found a woman who confessed that she had washed her baby's diapers in water that she then dumped into a leaking cesspool just three feet from the pump. Water to his credit wife had published. His findings in a magazine confirming snows theory. It took several more years for German physician to identify the actual bacterium the Brio Colorado. That causes cholera. Dr Robert Koch K. O. C. H. which might have been pronounced. Caulk or cook. I'll stick with cutch after my ninth grade. Science teacher demonstrated that the bacterial disease. Although infectious was not contagious person to person and that scrupulous sanitation would prevent color from occurring. Had It not been for snows empirical methods the ultimate eradication of cholera might have taken much longer and cost many more lives in recognition of his contribution to epidemiology. There is today a Jon. Snow Society at the London School Hygiene and tropical medicine however there are competing claimants for the founding of Epidemiology. One of whom was Dr William far? That's F. A. R. Another British physician. One just a few years earlier than Dr Snow in the eighteen thirties far wrote numerous papers on medical statistics and in eighteen sixty four. He published a report on the statistically high number of deaths among coal miners in Cornwall. Dr Far concluded these deaths mainly among middle aged males were due to pulmonary disease from that occupation the Association of a particular occupation with a particular disease diseases by gender age based on statistical analysis was new and some two hundred years before that in sixteen sixty one a non physician in fact a haberdasher dealing men's clothing named John Gaunt published a treatise natural and political observations made upon the bills of mortality. He observed that death mortality rates were higher in males. Although illnesses were busy rates were fewer among other things. He found that there was a high mortality. Rates among children and that rickets was epidemic the treatise however appears to have been his last major public health publication. His clothing business was destroyed in the great fire of London in sixteen sixty six forcing him into bankruptcy. He died eight years later at age. Fifty three unheralded and destitute. They ask wave away. Hail and farewell John Brunt. Why did this two century development of epidemiology occurs specifically in Great Britain most historians attributed to good recordkeeping by parish and county registers as well as parliamentary proceedings? In the Lord's archives however one might ask if this attribution of the beginnings of epidemiology to British investigators is somewhat Western centric view. I'm not familiar enough with ancient history and literature to know whether some keen observers in the Veronica in Islamic civilizations for instance or the Roman or Greek ears or an Asian and African dynasties made epidemiologic association with diseases in their own coaches in many ways after all epidemiology began as an exercise in logic until it became a methodology. Initially the field of epidemiology was defined as a study of the distribution of disease in the human population primarily incidents in prevalence as it was applied to infectious diseases however overtime epidemiologic methods replied to other conditions. There is of course cancer epidemiology. Which was in part fostered by Dr? Brian McMahon but there is now for Miko Epidemiology that Naria Biaggi molecular epidemiology epidemiology of occupational safety and health and more not only are incidents in prevalence studies but also in the case of communicable diseases. The transmission conditions and outcomes of the disease in subjects methods of study differ between infectious diseases such as bacterial cholera and viral Kobe. Nineteen and non infectious conditions such as cancer which may result from genetic causes dietary causes and noncommunicable exposures including for example Tobacco Smoking Radiation Industrial has etc in-investing gaining and infectious disease. One may look at a sequence of exposure by whatever means to the bacterium or viral agent then infection to some incubation period to the from first symptoms two degrees progression then depending on dimension two degrees of outcome in the case of Kobe. Nineteen the time from exposure to infection appears to be rapid than infection. Illness evident by greater or lesser symptoms appears to be a matter of days with the illness than having several possible outcomes from non fatal to fatal depending on certain variables ultimately investigating a non infectious disease breast cancer. For example the sequence may be susceptibility. Where the agent may be genetic or acquired or the interaction of both then some potential latency period sometimes years diagnosis then. Some potential agency sometimes years depending on treatment outcome going from the course of a disease in an individual to some larger aggregate population is more involved. The numbers of people exposed susceptible may be difficult to determine the latency periods. If any may also be difficult to determine may vary and may in the case of non infectious conditions. Take a long time to come evident. As for treatment and potential outcomes they too can be variable and each disease runs. Its own course. So you could see that quantifying all these steps can be complicated and there are lots of statistics involved assessing risks and probabilities confounding factors and modeling. The behavior of the disease. What epidemiology does not do is what Dr Koch Did. In laboratory experiments nor generally speaking do epidemiologist do garages and geneticists. Chemists do neither FDR themselves usually responsible for implementing their findings and recommendations is principally public health officers and physicians who guide us through an epidemic but their recommendations are continually being informed by epidemiologists who assessing the democratic distribution of cases where they are occurring among which populations younger versus older healthy versus compromised.