Andrew Strong, European Southern Observatory, Blackhall discussed on Space Nuts
The fifteen seconds guidance journal Chan nine technician sequence spence nets three to one space bill. Good hello once again. Thank you for joining us on the Space Nets podcast episode two hundred one and thank you to all those people who sent his good wishes about achieving two hundred episodes. The three of you must've listened intently to know that it was as two hundred decide. We we do appreciate the feedback. A few people on various platforms. Santa's some NAS notes joining me as always is professor Fred Watson Astronomer Lodge. Hello Fred I under how you going good to your strident voice again. Thank you sir. Yes good to hear yours too and I hope you will still still in Oscillation assume. Yeah that's right but going well just working from home Carrying on carrying on as you do yes absolutely true and I went. We're starting to say the the rules being relaxed in New South Wales so people are starting to venture out. I think most people being very cautious but a lot of people taking advantage of the opportunity to visit family and friends on a very very limited basis and maintain social distancing et CETERA. But it looks like Whatever we've done to curtail spread of this disease has worked very well in Australia. Which is You know you got to tip you to the authorities. I now. It was a hard sale but most people have taken notice and we've with good selves down to less than a thousand active cases in the country. Now which is just fantastic. Indeed and fingers crossed. That will keep going in that direction. You know thoughts are always with people in other parts of the world where things aren't going anywhere near as well yeah. I was looking at the statistics in the United States. Today and Yeah I'm gobsmacked to be honest I don't WanNa dwell on that but G Some of those States in America really in a bad way at the moment But it's different for every country different rules. Different systems different capabilities seem to really be a factor as well but Here we are doing what we can to try and stem the todd. Now Fred we're going to talk about a quite a few exciting Situations that have arisen One of which We've only been able to talk about now. Because it's been the subject of an embargo and that's the European Southern Observatory's major announcement about blackhall. Now you and I can talk about this Because it's post embargo but this this has been sort of kept top secret wrought up to Wednesday. Not which is been Rather extraordinary and Other Fascinating Yan has to do with the ice moon of Europa which orbits Jupiter and we had a per about they twenty years ago taking Self fees of of your riper in Jupiter and everything else that sort of flights around at the twenty year old data. But now we've been able to use up-to-date technology to take another look at it and I'm guessing they've found some interesting things speaking of Europa. We've had a question from Adrian Crawford has asked a specific question about Europa. So that'll dove tile will and. Monique wants to talk about mining on the moon. The moon spending the news this week. seventy different countries. Certainly want to go back there Trouble with the Moon is nobody owns it and so this is going to turn into a scrum. Reckon so I will allow. We'll look at all those issues today on the spice knots podcast but I this very exciting announcement by the Euro European Southern Observatory about a blackhall. Which as I understand it turns out to be the nearest one to earth and it's not cemeteries I exactly. That's right so I'll say the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. That's twenty five ish thousand light years away. I you know. We sit in the direction of the Constellation Secretaries But it's behind all the Dustin Merck out there but can be detected by radio ways which is why called Sagittarius Star. That's the name of the radio source so this is a different story altogether and it kind of has echoes Andrew. If something we were talking about probably about three or four weeks ago the idea that there might be many black holes out there which don't reveal themselves by anything other than the way they disturb the orbit of Sta's nearby they don't even Chretien disc of swelling materialists plumbing plummeting into them and causing rays and radio waves to miss it. Just quiet Perhaps the technical word black hole sitting there doing nothing but minding their own business but actually having gravitationally effect nearby stars and that is exactly. Excuse me that's exactly what this story is about. It comes from the European Southern Observatory and actually this discovery was not made with one of the John. Eight point two meter telescopes of the the elti. The very large telescope. It's actually one of the smaller ones. A two point to me to tell the scope Lucia which is one of the two main observatory sites at the European Southern Observatory runs in Chile. So strongly was using that telescope. Have been analyzing the motions of a star system which is only a thousand light years away. It's basically a galactic would And you know easy easy to see in fact. This style system can be seen with the naked eye. It's in the Southern Hemisphere Constellation of Telescope. Him The telescope. Which is so. I think it's Scientists in the Czech Republic and the Observatory. Self who've done this this work and the really nice part of the story is the came as a surprise to to the to the investigators. One of the scientists says we were totally surprised when we realized that this is the first Stella System with a black hole that can be seen with the unaided eye on nuts. Yeah that's big news. So what we go he. We've got the STA Whose NAME IS HR. Six eight one nine very elegant name really for it but It's a double style. Okay so that means do a binary system once overseeing another and this program that they scientists working on was a study of double star systems but what they were amazed to find was that the observations demonstrated that this was not just a double style. Not just a binary pag going around their common center of gravity that that is something else in the system and basically one of the two visible styles will be an object that he's not saying every forty days Naturally the second stop at a much greater distance from from this in a pair. So what you? What you've got is a year. We've got this two stars. One of which is orbiting the but the one of them is actually orbiting. Something else as well. That's the invisible so a Another of the CO authors Dietrich Mada who's at So he says the observations needed to determine the period of forty days had to be spread over several months. This was only possible. Thanks TO EASE. Those pioneering service observe escape do which absorb observations in my south on behalf of the scientists meeting. That's a mode of operation that actually many a straw is how country and Australia have used since Three years ago A strategic partner of the European Southern Observatory so not a service mode observing that if you need observations over a long period of time you go and spend two sitting in Zia in northern Chile so yet the local stuff that to do the observations for you. And that's how they said seventy brought that out so the the the the bottom line Andrew is once again. Here's a quote from one of the co-authors invisible object with a massive at least four times that of the sun which is what this had to be It can only be a black hole become anything else and so that is the smoking gun. They always this The new era the style to the black hole of this spinning around once every forty days around something four times as massive as the south has to be a black hole is the nearest and the conclusion is a really interesting one because Let me read the from the ace of a press release if Andrew Strong Have spotted only a couple of dozen black holes in our galaxy today nearly all of which strongly interact with their environment make their presence known by releasing powerful X rays but scientists estimate the over the Milky Wise lifetime many more stars collapsed into black holes as they ended their lives the discovery of a silent invisible black hole in. Hr six eight one nine provides clues about where the many hidden black holes in the Milky Way might be the must be hundreds of millions of black holes out there but we know about the only very few knowing what to look for should put in a better position to find them this. This isn't sorry. Go just to say might be the tip of a very exciting iceberg. This could be the first of many that found by this technique so this is not only the discovery of the nearest black hole to earth. It's also the discovery of a way of finding them. Because of the way we found this one is that what the side. That's exactly right. That's the facts are gone. That's a giant leap. Forward really is a giant leap forward. I mean we actually talks about something similar to this probably four or five months ago. A another similar discovery. But I think this one is the one that really clinches it that we've got this way of discovering black holes by looking closely at the way stars excuse me stars in Binary Systems actually orbit. It's a very powerful technique and I think. Unlv told me about two more over the years. Yes I surprised. They've only found a dozen or so in our immediate vicinity over the years but as we have discussed these things are very elusive but it Naseem sit. They've revealed to us away of of now. Finding them in we we may be finding them in their hundreds of thousands in into the future We also talked in the past about The size of Blackhall's I think you did allude to the size of this one but just Give us a reminder. How how big is this? Did you say Yeah full-time Semester? Of the Sung Sung and that sort of sit in the black hole sizing chart it is Andrew under member. Where you have this I. It is a standard black hole that we haven't really had a definition for them. We know the trade in the world of astronomy. We referred to the Stella mass black holes because his the same as a style. And you know you again if talked about this before we find black holes in basically two different categories stellar mass black holes. The kind of like this may be up to ten or twenty times the most of the sun a the supermassive black holes it up to ten or twenty billion times the mass of the sun so a very little in between and finding new objects in between these another of the challenges what you might call intermediate mass black holes because they must be out there and we we think that they look principally in the sentence of globular clusters those things that it probably the remnants of galaxies that have been gobbled up by bigger galaxies like the Milky Way so there is a picture building up about giving astronomers method of finding stellar mass black holes. The not active that. They're not emitting xrays because of the accretion disks that's a really powerful step forward and it comes about once again because of the scientists of spectroscopy you're looking for that Dukla. Wobble they the thing that reveals planets around stars the idea that a planet pulls star slightly backwards and forwards and reveals the presence of the planet. The diplo level technique may new since nineteen ninety five but the This is an extension of that in a way kind of doppler technique but for things much bigger than planets for black holes so it's a very powerful finding them yet we we oughta one submit a paper or a An application or whatever it is we do to whoever is in charge of naming objects and suggests that these be called standard mass black holes. We ought to do. What do we know astronomer? Who's got context might to do that? Fred yes I was. It's going to suggest that this would be the International Astronomical Union wouldn't we'd have to. Ya and they would say well very nice but we've already got the name for them. We Call Them. Stella's black holes and tell you much I think as far as spice Nazis come that standard black holes Andrew. We'll call them a standard blackhall from here on if we were to do so. That varies from country to country. This is fabulous new. So it'd be a heck of a lot more to learn and this is probably some chains dragging for a little while Finding a A standard blackhall so close to Earth. And did you say it was Observable with the naked I was that what I heard. Yeah that's right. It's a visible to the naked. I am I don't have a note to the Magnitude which is a technical term used for the brightness of Stars Eight You know probably about fifth or sixth magnitude which is roundabout the You know the limits of visibility with the naked eye maybe fifth magnitude So would be a good candidate for a fighter. Graph are yeah. They'll be many of them. But of course all it shows up in a photograph is a single point of lies Because e you don't see any of this structure the binary star trove it because that's only revealed by the fact that you can watch the way the styles move around with a spectograph Checking registered losses as we call it so you know the this stop it will be any image taken of that part of the sky with with modern digital cameras It'll be it'll be quite bright because he's a naked eye star but he won't show anything different about it To to to the casual Luca. It's only when he saw analyzing the motion of the component styles that you realize that there is something very very special jump in this. Yeah we're Eighties Josse Excite. When non remember that Raw Dan? It's a wonderful discovery show. We'll get to talk about it again real soon. You're listening to space nuts with your.