Elizabeth Blackburn, David Sinclair discussed on The Doctor's Farmacy with Mark Hyman, M.D.


Lots of veggies. And making sure you're having the right timing and balance of protein, the right quality of timing of eating. So all this is, by the way, in the book, in a very specific way. So I encourage you to check it out. So I literally could do a whole podcast just on the haw on the first hallmark of aging, but I want to cover all of them without kind of boring you too much. So I want to get into this. And the reason I go through these hallmarks in the book is because it's important to understand why we age. What's going wrong? How do we work on it? What are the reasons why we have to do the things we have to do in order to increase our health span in our lifespan. And once you understand that, you're more motivated to go, oh, jeez, if I do this, it's going to screw up this hallmark. You might think twice about it. And then you're empowered to deal with the root causes of it as well. The second hallmark is something you probably wear, which is DNA damage and mutations. This happens all the time. Every day we get a death by a thousand cuts. Literally a 100,000 little hits every single day in our DNA has to repair itself. Now, even if you repaired 99.9% of your DNA every day, which we do, there's still kind of this rogue DNA damage. Over time, those accumulate the accelerate, and they affect our reproduction of new cells and are mitosis and our ability to actually replicate the things we need to replicate. So basically, it's kind of wild, but their DNA is required to create all the things our bodies do. And it's basically the blueprint in each cell. And your DNA reproduces basically ten quadrillion times every time through cell division over your lifetime. That's an enormous amount. And it's like a copy machine. And they're glitches in the copy machine. And then your DNA blueprint can be produced with these glitches. Well, what do you do to address that? First, you want to avoid the things that cause DNA damage, which is what we just talked about the sugar processed food, all that crap. Environmental toxins, radiation, by the way, stress also will do it. And second, you can activate your DNA repair systems. And the beautiful thing about the body is it has these innate healing systems. It's incredibly deep wisdom of what to do to heal repair and regulate itself. We've just interfere with those systems, which is why we have so much disease. So doing that, you can actually activate your DNA repair systems. One of the ways is by activating your two ends, for example, with NAD or NR NMN. And I go through all that in the book. What's the next hallmark? Telomere shortening. Telomeres are these little caps at the end of our chromosomes that prevent the chromosomes from unraveling and they have to be kind of opened up when we replicate and then they close back up. Well, they kind of shorten as we age and then eventually become too short and they're still can't replicate and they die. This process called apoptosis, which is good or they become zombie cells, which is another hallmark of aging. We'll talk about which then just run around spewing inflammation everywhere in the body. And so, you know, this problem is an issue for many people as they're telling me you're shortening your life shortens, but what causes them to shorten is our toxic process diet, sugar, environmental toxins, not exercising, stress, and the shorter your telomeres are shorter your life. So the beautiful thing is we know from the work of Elizabeth Blackburn and others is showing the Nobel Prize for this that we can actually increase the length of our telomeres even as we get older by changing our lifestyle by avoiding toxins by doing various kinds of things like meditation, even certain supplements can actually extend the length of your telomeres. So there's a lot of good things you can do about your telomeres. The next hallmark is damaged proteins. Proteins regulate everything in our body. There's thousands and thousands and thousands of proteins in the whole purpose of your DNA is just to code for proteins. And these proteins regulate everything, your organs, your tissues, your cells are all made up of proteins, all the messenger molecules in your body, like hormones, peptides, immune molecules, and neurotransmitters, they're made up of proteins. And they're basically the information superhighway facilitating trillions of chemical reactions every second in your body. Now, what happens over time is sometimes these proteins can get damaged. And then the messages are kind of static Y or they don't really properly do the things they're supposed to do. David Sinclair talks about aging as an information problem. The information theory of aging. And so we end up with these damaged proteins, they don't really work properly. And they become misshapen and proteins are basically strings of amino acids that are 20 or more, and then they're folded in a certain three dimensional structure, and then they bind to receptors and they do all kinds of things. So when they're funky and misshapen or damaged, they don't work properly. So how do we fix these damaged proteins? Well, there's a lot of ways. My favorite way is sauna. It actually is great because it stimulates something called heat shock proteins, which repair and re fold some of these damaged proteins. Also autophagy, which is stimulated by inhibiting mTOR through time restricted eating or drugs like rapamycin or other phytochemicals. Basically stimulates the process of self cleaning and repair where it digests these damaged proteins that like a PacMan and gobbles them up and digest them and then it breaks them down and kind of gets the old parts like hanging on an old barn and making a house out of it. You got the old wood, but you're going to make a new house. It's like recycling those things. So basically, we need to prevent this sort of constant flow of food, right? So we need at least a break from eating overnight from 12 to 14 hours. We need to get rid of all the starch and processed sugar in our diet and processed foods. And we need to actually stimulate autophagy. And there's many ways to do this. There are calorie restriction or autophagy generating phytochemicals that we can consume and I talked about those in the book. Also periods of fasting overnight that we talked about, all that can really help. And so there's ways to fix these proteins. The next hallmark is the epigenetic damage. And epigenetics you might have heard about. But basically, you know, think of your genes as a fixed set of instructions, right? It's like a piano keys. You've got 88 piano keys. You can't change them. They just what they are. But think of all the different things you can do in a piano. You can make jazz rock, reggae, ragtime, classical music, right? So the epigenome is like the piano player. It means above epi means above your genome, and it regulates this sort of genes in which genes get turned on or off, the disease genes, or the health genes, the longevity genes for the early death genes. And so you can really regulate your IB genome. In fact, the measurement of biological age, and in the book I talk about, you know, I'm 63, but my biological age is 43 because I've learned how to regulate my epigenome. And this is how they test for this. They test for your epigenetic health through something called DNA methylation. And that's beautiful because we can modify it and be changing our diet exercise stress or supplements.

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