Minnesota, Persia Lewin, Producer discussed on Science Rules! with Bill Nye
You listen. He's back. So before we spoke with Chris, Dr Riley, you're explaining bacterial warfare. And how bacteria sins are like guided missiles, I'm sorry, but little. No. I knew that gets zoom. Do you know what happens when you presume Corey, I know what happens apprec- Persia Lewin me? But before we go there, I presumed that bacteria killing their own species. They might kill a sub species, or a nearby genetically nearby species, but you're saying it would be wrong with that. Presume that's why we're talking about this. So did they deploy directionally? So think about it this way. You have coli living on the mucin in your gut, and it's happily chomping away from Yusen. It's that lie MU McCoy lining of June. Cordy lining. Yeah. That's right. Got a little mucus just kind of flooring, all of your clippings, making it all nice and smooth and bliss, Andy and any colour just happily munching away. And let's say that at lunch, you ate some slightly raw hamburger meat and anew E coli entered. Your gut it has to do two things. It has to survive in your gut, which it's evolved to do, but also has to find a space in your gut. And if other e-coli are there it can't get in. So what it does is it produces a bacteria that will kill just those strains of e-coli releasing that environment for them to now, invade, and also, if you're going to if you're back, you're, you're gonna make a molecule, you wanna make an efficient molecule, you don't want you want to overdo it, because it takes energy, your bacterial resources, right? Exactly. And so these guys only do this, they only make these molecules when they're stressed out by their neighbors by their close. Neighbours stressed out. The neighbors are competing for the same exactly shorter. Whatever stressed the in the environment, they feel so it could be just nutrients are depleted, or oxygen levels are low or high whatever bothers them peg, I want to back up here for a second because you were talking about. You don't want to mow down your microbiome want. You don't want to clear out all these beneficial bacteria that air in your body, but that first problem, the big problem of antibiotic resistance to bacteria since help you against that. Don't do that. The bacteria then develop resistance to the bacteria as well. Absolutely. They will. And that's where we have to be a little bit smarter. Now, if you look at the evolution of bacteria sins, the bacteria have survived using these most every species, uses them, and what they do is they have a huge panel of them. And so you you're constantly selecting for a new protein that can do the job better. So in the human parallel, you have antibiotics and we have the first one penicillin great thing till. It's not ampicillin. Tetracycline Oxy tetracycline. And we invent or discover one after the other because of resistance the bacteria don't have to wait for that. They have tons of these proteins for billions of years. Johnny. Yeah. So what they do is they, they just cycle through them and it's actually Kintu rock paper scissors the bacteria play game where they bring in new protein resistance evolves. The producer disappears and now being resistant can be costly and so- sensitivity involves. And then a new producer comes in and it just cycles round around the premise of your bit. If I understand it is to addenda fi the bacterium with, which I am infected than show up with the proper bacteria Zain. That's right. We have another caller, Chelsea. Are you out there? Hello. Where are you calling from Chelsea? I'm calling from Minnesota. Well, that's a big place. Are you allowed to tell us specifically where in Minnesota? Thank cloud. Minnesota like central Minnesota like right in the middle not far from the source of the of the Mississippi River. No, I live right next to it. Next to it is, for me is a lot like not far so cool..