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Automatic TRANSCRIPT

In fifteen seconds guidance journal and nine technician sequence spence nuts three to to space meals good by their thanks for joining us on the space nuts podcast. I my name's andrew dice. Clay your host and joining me as always professor fred. What's an astronomer at large from the department of dotted out at out at odds pretty the title. We'll call it from now on. You could call me the a._l. A._l. astronomer in charge i see the only trouble is l. Actually has another significant meeting in australian astronomy because it doesn't only stand for a stronger allergy also stunts. I astronomy australia limited so just throw the idea out rubbish audio obvious pistol once given the title u. r. r. s. anyway people understand that you've got lovely friends a lot of good friends today. We're going to talk about some very exciting things. It looks like black holes stealing people's minds so we're gonna be talking about a couple of questions that have come in from papal about infinite density density. I keep getting mixed up with destiny other. Why been back to the future movie that confused me on that front and and issues photographing blackhall why were they issues at all and another question about space travel and knee light speed travel. We're also going to look at the cause of a gravitational wave that was detected recently. This is exciting because they think they've pinpointed an the actual cause and we're going to start off today fred by talking about this rather exciting mission. That's one step closer to happening. A mission to jupiter's it is moon europa and that's what we'll start with the small softening morning tonight say yesterday whenever is yeah yeah so look terrific story very good news from nasa the they <hes> the powers that be within netzer have <hes> given the go-ahead full admission cody roper clipper which is is one of the missions spain postulated. Also proposed is a better word for exploring the moons of the outer planets. There are a number that are kind of on the on the table at the moment some further advanced than others but your upper clipper is pretty well advanced as you can tell it's target these main target is jupiter's nero which is one of these an dan ocean moons ice ocean moons. We believe it house a covering of ice. We don't other state. I think alex will be one of the things said europa clipper would find out and an ocean underneath. It's an iraqi call so europa clipper. I think they are talking talking about having it ready for launching twenty twenty three which is <hes> you know if they can do that. That's right <hes> but apparently that's <hes> that's the baseline commitment as cold <unk> launch readiness date by twenty twenty five <hes>. It's all leaned on at the jet propulsion laboratory in pasadena. That's where the space craft will be built so they've got the go ahead some. It's it's got a you know a a the next step in in a approval from nasa which i think is pretty solid one so i think we you and i back back in twenty twenty five. We'll be talking about europa clipper. Maybe scan what will be the basis of the of the mission. They just going to have a look because it is a bit like that but it's a very good look so it's not going to land on europa is a proposal to going to always around your actually say to go into orbit around jupiter and of course orbiting jupiter is always hazardous because of the intense intense radiation radiation belts that jupiter has it's got a magnetic field thousands of times bigger than the s in house as high energy radiation belts around it threatened to melt the the spacecraft so like <hes> the juno mission which is currently nobis around jupiter bliss <hes> europe a clipper will go into a very along gated opet which will give it forty five flies of europa and that altitudes institute will vary from two thousand seven hundred kilometers to twenty five kilometers so it will really be skimming over the surface oil and he's got this huge science package with all the kind of you know the governs that you would expect to find on board something like that including a mass spectrometer which basically measures the whites of atoms as you might guess <hes> it is interesting because euro per like saturn's and moon enceladus is thought to have it hasn't really been probably confirmed but thought to have fountains coming out of it which are water water squirting up through it through its icy. Shell an instantly freezing snap frozen but if you fly through it as cassini did with enceladus then you can sample what be until makeup is and so the bus spectrometer will help with that also <hes> it's got this ground penetrating on attracting radar and that's going to be crucial in characterizing europa's crust and revealing how much of you know the you potential water within is oceanic because he's expected or whether it is just pockets of water as we find antarctica and indeed around the south pole of of mars. Will they be able to tell what kind of water is to some extent. They will it. It may require <hes> a bit of you know inference from other measurements but if you've got samples of ice crystals dining can do exactly you're not you can you can <hes> basically child towel weather sailing water or freshwater because he can say they can measure the salt content salvaged so like saturn's moon enceladus <hes> which is actually quite reaching minerals and silicates in that tells you that this water water was once in contact with with i think the europa clipper will be able to sample exactly those things to assuming these plumes real because is that the that the not well observed they're out there is evidence are seen images that seem to show these plumes coming from europa assuming that real when they fly through <hes> hopefully we will tell what kind of wall street tastes exactly and will i be able to tell how much water there is underneath the surface. Yes they will because costats will very much be revealed by the the ground penetrating writer in exactly the way that <hes> one of the spacecraft in orbits around ma. I think it was the i think it was even been mars reconnaissance orbiter. I'm not sure detected this lake of liquid water underneath the ice cap of the southern ice cap gap of mars about a year ago spoke about and they can tell exactly how much there is a because you can see the boundary with this sort of radar exceed exceed the boundary between an ice surface water surface and that's crucial to doing this so this mission would actually be looking for life but it will the looking for the potential for life to perhaps exists on a on a moon like this exactly so as a a as the blurb on the nasa website size <hes> it will help scientists investigate the chemical makeup of euro is potentially habitable environment while minimizing reminding the need to drill through vice so that while they're going to try and do as much as a country moment and then you know if there's like if they find lipids amino acids and all this sort of thing in the in the plumes of ice coming coming from europe then clearly the next step will be ah landa the sauce digging holes in. I mean you know before you do that. The first thing you need to know is how thick the fate if it's a couple of miles thick well actually a couple of miles is better than what they're expecting onset twenty five thirty kilometers. That's right choosier units. Yes so yes finish layer of ice will be pretty pretty good to you know to cope coat with you could probably do that by less than a kilometer probably part. The likelihood is it's. It's probably more but nuggets will be left away and say <hes> europe covering cracks that have the brownish in color. Yes that's thought to be effective sunlight on brine on basically on salt water so you've already got a hint that is probably a salty ocean underneath the surface. Well salt probably not that uncommon in the universe. Really you know. One of the base materials isn't it <hes> of course this doesn't guarantee. They're actually gonna go. This is just another step forward in in the approval process. That's very long. The two no process in they have to get over a lot of hurdles before they actually hit the launch button. Hopefully elitist ran the candidate. Get there and it's a long trip to the other thing so they've gotta get in the right place at the right time exactly well all of the above that's right so at least what at least it's not an back. That's the date or we'll. We'll keep an eye on this story because i'm shoulder be motor report in the not too distant future about a mission to europa. You're listening to space nuts with andrew dunkley and fred watson.