Chile, Hawaii, Constantinople Migas discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary


Galaxies up to twelve billion light years away providing them with insights into the universe when it was just a fraction of its current age quals are among the brightest objects in the cosmos their powerful beams of energy generated by being ripped apart as it falls into a supermassive black hole as this quasar light pass through the galaxies. Specific wavelengths are absorbed by the gas resulting in an absorption spectrum telling scientists about the chemical composition of that gas but unexpectedly weapon colleagues noticed that the fine structure constant pete be different depending on which direction they were looking Web says. It appears to be getting stronger in one direction waker. In the other webs initial observations use the giant tin made a kick telescopes in Hawaii in order to eliminate any equipment aberrations with a telescope. The office collected data from a second observatory. The very large telescope veal t in Chile's hired a comma desert the veil to looked at a different part of the sky but it came out with findings consistent with kick showing the same rate of change and in the same direction as astronomers look at more and more distant objects in space. They're also looking back further in time. So we've been colleagues looked at even more distant. Quasars some thirteen billion light years away in never before undertaking observation the authors Caridad for measurements of the fine structure constant along the one line of sight to Quasar now individually. These for measurements. Didn't provide any conclusive answer as to whether or not they really was any perceptible changes in the electromagnetic force. However when combined with other observations undertaken by other scientists unrelated to Web's work the differences in the fine structure constant became evident. They found hints that the fine structure constant really wants different in certain regions of the universe the observations add to evidence that electromagnetism seems to be gradually increasing strength when looking back in one direction of distances of twelve billion light is while looking back over the same distance but in the opposite direction shows an apparent decrease in strength and yet in all other directions the fine structure constant remains just that constant. Hey you may recall that. Last month on Space. Time we reported on the work of Constantinople Migas from the University of Bonn his observations reported in the journalists Ron in the and astrophysics suggested that the universe is expanding at different rates in different directions. Astronomers generally agree that the universe that with the Big Bang about thirteen point eight billion years ago and it's been continuously expanding the since that rate of expansion appears to be accelerating judicial mysterious force called tack energy but that change in the red expansion still a piece to be the same in all directions. Migos research examined the relationship between the temperature of hot gases providing a galaxy cluster and the amount of x Rays. It produces known as the cost is minority. The higher the temperature the gas in the cluster. The high the x Ray luminosity is and so once the temperature of the classic guests can be measured the x Ray Lewis. Manati can be estimated. And He's where it gets interesting cost of the same temperature and located at similar distance. Should it be similarly bright? But that's not what they observed instead Miguel's colleagues or clusters with the same properties and with similar temperatures which appear to be less bright than what we would expect in one direction to the sky and brighter than expected in another direction and the difference was quite significant around thirty percent even more interesting. These differences want random but they had a very clear patent depending on the direction of the sky. Observing web says if the fine structure constant really does vary not just with time it also space that would require a major rethink of quantum mechanics and our standard model of particle physics. He says if the fine structure concert is different in different parts of the universe then that could mean different properties for chemicals and even biology according to web a full percent change in the fine structure constant would mean differences in the production of elements which would affect our stars burn and change the production of heavy elements such as those needed for the formation of life. What knew about the work that we put it too much. I am rich. All people want to think in terms of distance granted since away from all much closer to the Big Bang in time we pushed it right back into the universe is being pushed pool. We've gone into the infrared part of the spectrum for the first time which is allow us to do this. Before we had lots of observations our observations were all banned. Stop below redshift a tree. We've now we've got measurements from five dollars out to sentence. Well that means in terms of look time so the universe is about thirteen point. Eight billion years old according to the Standard Model. We've come within about eight hundred million years within about more point the is of the big bend. We've come back very early now with these observations. Then we've combine these observations. There is only one Chrysler in Sun Saddam's his Labor four measurements along the line of sight and those four measurements we've combined with a bunch of measurements previously closer to us in time. If you I and then look to see what happens to the directional signal the walls already hinted the data and the Council cow away. You know the NATO the points that consisted by themselves through anything it's still tend to push me to tantalizing but we got the same directionality and the it doesn't is certainly these. New Measurement certainly do not conflict with the suggestion that could be a direction not to the universe in fact a directionality signal is preferred of Nanda rationality. When you take the date say as a whole so. That's what new we've got. We've got measurements which go much earlier. Tomo distant from a concept to the time and they continue to support the idea of his notion that there could be a direction novelty in the laws of physics crack for new. So what this is telling us. Is that if you look in one direction. The value the fine structure constant is different to what it is in another direction. And if you look in other directions it matches what the existing figures for the fine structure constant Dr Ryan and the interesting thing is we have a new aspect of this since we lost little time ago. That addicted actually. Yeah I know time flies. Yeah the other interesting thing is that they've been a bunch of emission. Snow this nick. Nick measurement is the punch their measurements involving the cosmic microwave background the oak the flow of loss under the Galaxy. Supernova measurements in the McKenna's observation x ray emission from galaxy clusters and so forth. There's a bunch of other types of rations which completely independent of the of work on during the fine structure constant directing buffalo's physics but involve distribution of matter and these things also suggest the direction of the house individually each one none of them especially contending although statistically significant to some level but they all seem to line over sky within the arrows. There's still big but it's a very interesting situation. Now there's a chocolate it's a huge cosmic conspiracy or cosmic fluke and which is just one of those things but on the other hand something that really does need storing there. Is this apparent coincidence between a bunch of different measurements and the fine structure one which we originally published back in two thousand and first of all. We suggested that there was sort of that since then. All these other takes points being added so it's a really interesting situation. The fact that these things are happening using different methods of observation that's significant because if you're getting the same results using the same method then that's one thing but if you're getting the same sort of results the same observations by using different methods. That's actually very significant that starts to become something needs. Urgent Investigation Shirley. Yeah the paper. A while back by Greek authors of pulling together assessed I have a whole the statistical significance and it was looking pretty compelling but suddenly statistically significance that we up to the three sigma level yet or something like that well whereabout three sigma. We've just our amish. Wow and individually. Most of these are about that but you know the kind of the gold standard. If you like is is often taken. Us FIVE-SET YES when we're up to five six with this with this collection of measurement or not. I don't know I haven't looked into that on practice completely on the work that I'm doing which is trying to get this measurements. I can find structure constant. And we're the IT's actually pretty. Maybe about Muslim that for our listeners. Five Sigma was enough to give us. The Higgs bows on being. There is existing is being real. So you're obviously very close. It's an important point in this research. You're right five. Six is what got people convinced about. Expose on getting their luckily. There's some fantastic new instrumentation coming along and new facilities which means this means that we really can improve the data. He just takes time a lot of efforts that new instrument on the European supplements few Bart which has a new means of calibrating data. It's the data was precise. The new data is far more precise. Data's coming alone. We're getting better measurements. A COUPLE OF MONTHS BACK. We actually had time to make new measurements on all four. Voc's once this was unprecedented acting week. All for eighty two Tokyo were hooked up by optical fiber and each optical fiber was then brought together into one instrument to observe one Quasar to get a very high signal to noise good signal on that one craze. We've got that day to the observations with successful. We working on that at the moment we have announced yet. But that's coming. Just what one of the new things coming the national? The we're talking about came from another instrument on the OT X. shooter which is an infrared instrument infrared observations of this sort of been catching up with the optical ones. It's hard to build these high high precision high sensitivity instruments in the parade but the technology has called venture investor. That's what this new papers. About infrared measurement and go right back to within eight years that they explain the fine structure constant to us is a dimension ratio three quantities. It involves planks constant the speed of light and the charge on the electron and it's a dimension ratio involving those three quantities. The fact that is mentioned less has no units is very important because it means is more fundamental than a quantity like for example the speed of light which mentions so. This is the source of quantity that people like me focus on because she needs the units to make the measurement settle is the number of physicists. Used to Kerama tries to provide a measure of the strength of the electromagnetic force. There are four forces that we know about electromagnetism and gravity and then the two forces that act inside atoms the weak force and so it turns out that electro-magnetic force by the fine structure constantly the one that we can perhaps most easily make measurements all. And it's a constant which means it should be the same everywhere and this research is showing that there's a growing possibility that it's not that really is GonNa be affecting the foundation stones of our understanding of physics. That's right the sixty we've using for a very long time based on the assumption that the laws of physics of the same throughout the history of the universe that the same everywhere. If you take unsigned Syria. Gravity for example. It's based on. What's given the unstuck equivalence principle? Which states that? The Laws of physics always kind of thing that assumption makes it easier for them to build equations which gives us predicted power amish described the observations that night at the universe us without those assumptions. Everything gets very much harder. It's very appealing to have these simplifications built into standard models of physics but since if occasion is necessarily of the real universe it may be. It may not be a modern theories. String theory is permits by have that option built into them but the fundamental constants should vary put. It might be slightly differently in these new series of everything that nothing that stops with demento constantly changing nothing fundamental to stop changing and so many theoreticians actually expect that at some level we to see sort of changes and constructed new theoretical models to describe how the standard model does have its problems. It can't explain dark energy and it can't explain that matter at least not yet. That's got to be a hint that has to be new physics beyond what we know. I would have that. Everyone would agree with that statement. You're right the standard model of cosmology works very well. How if and only if most of the energy content of the universe is not in the form of protons neutrons electrons the stuff that we had it has to be in the form of energy and matter as well without those assumptions. You can't make the standard both work so there is certainly something new that we don't know about the model is wrong or these things stock a g dark matter do exist for something at some point. We'll keep dark. Energy couldn't just be a example of the CASIMIR effect on a cosmic scale and dot matter isn't just a new type of Neutrino that we haven't discovered yet. Or maybe it isn't. Maybe there is an axiom. Although the evidence doesn't seem to point to that people keep on placing upper limit some different candidates Sadat politics and the trouble is that you know even when you add up all of the upper limits. You can't quite get to the amount of dot master that you need to explain. The observations of economic see rotation cuts and various other teams rate. Yeah seventy dollars off found yet. There's lots of candidates. I guess most people would regard the mats and not as the worst mystery be like talking to g is because they really don't know go is Really don't have a coup as to what talking G is on the other hand it. He's in support of the sound. Will Idiots fascinating? The Standard Model has so many incredible successes and works so very well in many different ways. We get amazing predictions from the models which pre date the abundances elements to a significant extent. Universe down appeared creaky isotopic with discussing whether it's tropic diapers is attributed to within one part in one hundred thousand completely. You know there. There is a residual civilian CNBC Day. To which is not yet been explained completely and there are all these groups. Relations releasing to the Hubble constant doesn't work in the same Bay and when compared to other measurements of distant supernovae interest in the many papers which looked to see whether there is a direction in the SUPERNOVA data..

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