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A highlight from Using Digital Health Technology to Bring the Trial to the Patient
"Center about how digital health technology is transforming biomedical research, how it's changing what is possible, and some of the ongoing research projects, the center is conducting. Ed, thanks for joining us. Great to be here. Thank you. We're going to talk about digital clinical trials, the work of the Scripps research digital trial center. And how this is not only changing the way studies are being conducted, but expanding what's possible. There's been a lot of interest in decentralized clinical trials, though this predates the pandemic, that seems to have accelerated the move toward these. What effected COVID-19 have on decentralized clinical trials? Yeah, so accelerated I think is a great word for it. This is something that we have been thinking about as a model for sometimes here at Scripps research. Eric topol and the team in our digital medicine group have had already several years under their belt exploring and conceptualizing and ultimately deploying some of the first digital research studies in digital clinical trials. So when COVID came around, we were absolutely prepared to put this model to the test because, well, we kind of had to. There was no path towards a traditional model in terms of bringing individuals into a bricking mortar sight. We absolutely wanted to have the ability to scale rapidly and absolutely wanted to have the ability to have our research studies be open and accessible to all. As you think about the obstacles that have been in place, would have been the constraints have they been regulatory technological or cultural with regards to biopharmaceutical companies and clinical trial investigators. Yeah, I think the answer is a big yes across the board there. And I can step through a couple of examples with respect to cultural we're now leveraging some really exciting digital health technologies. with that comes some unique aspects of risk that we may not necessarily have had to dealt with in the past, whether it's a type of data that's being collected, for example, GPS, so getting very specific location data or just even having things being done at the participant's home as a potential for some kind of exposure to their participation in a given research study just even by virtue of a box being melted them from Scripps research, potentially raising eyebrows. So a lot of things like that had to be considered as we shifted more to this model on the regulatory side, the FDA is increasing their dialog around how to use digital endpoints in review or as use as supporting material and review of new Therapeutics and new medicines, especially in the context of clinical trials. And so while it's exciting to be in this burgeoning field, the newness and novelty of it absolutely introduces some speed bumps along the way as folks adjust to what this new paradigm can bring to the table. In the real disease world in particular because of the geographic dispersity of patients in the difficulty they may have traveling to a clinical trial site there's been a great willingness to embrace decentralized clinical trials. In general, though, how does industry view these? I think the excitement, the kind of paint the positive aspect of the picture, it really gives them another tool in the toolbox in terms of being able to describe, for example, potential efficacy of a new therapeutic. And the excitement is really derived from the fact that a lot of these technologies now provide data in more of a continuous context compared to something that's episodic. So take, for example, if you're looking at a skin condition in which the itchiness of it as described by the participant may only be done in the two week cadence or one month cadence that they're visiting the brick and mortar clinic site to kind of describe what they've been feeling. We have a situation now of being able to use digital health technologies that can monitor hand movements and use the gyroscope within a risk worn wearable that could potentially tease out the actual physical movement of itching and give us more continuous data more real time data that can be extremely advantageous in terms of being able to describe the impact of a particular disease
A highlight from Ep. 43: Two Pioneers in HIV Activism and Research
"I Mary Parker, and welcome to this episode of Eureka's sounds of science. 40 years ago, the world was introduced to 5 patients. They were the first reported cases of what would come to be known as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or aids. My two guests today have been in the trenches of this disease almost from the beginning through research and activism. Please welcome doctor Kenneth Mayer, medical research director of Fenway health and a Professor of medicine, global health and population at Harvard, and professor Greg Gonzalez, from the Yale school of public health. Together we will discuss the past, present and future of HIV aids research and activism, and how community engagement has shaped research progress. Welcome, Kenneth and Gregg. Thanks. And you guys know each other from way back in the day. Yeah. So let's start by having you both tell us a bit about your background. Ken would you like to start? Yeah, and already sort of suggested to Fenway that they should be doing some research because there were so many questions that we didn't have answers to that best practices for caring for gay men and lesbians and other sexual trend of minority people. So they knew even prior to aids that was sort of my orientation. Did you have any kind of framework in those early days for dealing with the community or was it even kind of on people's radar that they needed to have more community outreach? Yeah, well, Fenway is a community health center. And it was actually founded as part of the free clinic movement. It had a strong feminist tradition and so it wasn't a gay clinic per se. It was worked with a lot of different community, activist groups. So interact with community was kind of a natural. It was more my day job where I was studying infectious diseases that Brigham and women's hospital are in medical school where I think it took quite a number of years to get the more engaged with the community. And how about you, Greg, what's your background? Well, I moved to Boston in 1981 to go to college. And subsequently dropped out in college in the middle of the 80s and ended up just waiting tables and Harvard square and different places around the Boston area. And then in the middle of the 90s, I met somebody who was HIV positive, which is the first person I had ever met who was living with HIV and went in search of answers. And there was no Internet. There are no Google and if you're a college dropout, you're not getting into the Taos medical school library where I was undergraduate. And so I was desperate for information about what was going to happen to my then boyfriend may then partner. And I stumbled upon a group called act up probably in the late 80s. And went to see what was it all about. And my people basically. Gay men and lesbians, other queer people in the same boat. They were living with HIV themselves, or they had friends or lovers or relatives who were newly diagnosed with the disease and trying to figure out what to do.
A highlight from #244 Robert Crews: Afghanistan, Taliban, Bin Laden, and War in the Middle East
"Mistake for the United States to invade Afghanistan in 2001, 20 years ago? Yes. As simple as yes, why was it a mistake? I'm an historian so I say this was some humility about what we can know. I think I'd still like to know much more about what was going on The White House, you know, in the hours days, weeks, after 9 11, but I think the George W. Bush administration acted in the state of panic. And I think they wanted to show kind of toughness. They wanted to show some kind of resolve, this was a horrific act, they played out on everyone's television screens. And I think it was really fundamentally a crisis of legitimacy within The White House, the novels. And I think they felt like they had to do something and something dramatic. I think they didn't really think through who they were fighting, who they named me was what this geography had to do with 9 11. I think lean back at it. Some of us not to say I was clairvoyant or you could see in the future, I think many of us were from that morning, skeptical about the connections that people were drawing between Afghanistan as a state, as a place. And the options of Al-Qaeda in Washington and New York and Pennsylvania. So as you watch the events of 9 11, the things that our leaders were saying in the minutes hours days, weeks that followed. Maybe you can give a little bit of a timeline in of what was being said. One was the actual invasion of Afghanistan and also what were your feelings in the minutes, weeks after 9 11? I was in D.C.. I was on the way to American university hearing on APR. What happened, and I thought of the American university logo, which is red white and blue. It's an eagle. And I thought, you know, watching his under attack and symbols of American power are under attack. And so, you know, I was quite concerned and at the time lived just a few miles from the capitol. And so I felt that it was real. So I appreciate the sense of anxiety and fear and panic and for two, three years later in D.C., we are constantly getting reports, mostly rumors and gun confirmed about all kinds of attacks with all the cities, but I definitely appreciate the sense of being undersold. But in watching television, including Russian television, 'cause I just installed a satellite thing. So I was trying to watch world news and get different points of view. And that was quite useful to have an alternative set of eyes in Russian. Yeah, in Russian. Yeah. Okay, so your Russians is good enough to understand Russian television. The news, yeah, the news and the visuals that were coming that were not shown on American television. I don't know how they had it, but they had, they were not filtering anything in the way that the major networks and cable television were doing here. So it was a very unvarnished view of the violence of the moment, New York City of people diving from the towers are being held back on that, which was quite fascinating. I think much of the world saw much more than actually the American public saw. But to your question, you know, amid that feeling of imminent doom, I watch commentators start to talk about Al-Qaeda and then talk about Afghanistan and when the experts was born at Rubin, who's NYU who's a long, very learned Afghanistan hand.
A highlight from Two guys. Two kayaks. And 2500km to make the Murray River sing
"This is an ABC podcast. Welcome to science friction on the tesh Mitchell. Today we are taking you into a wild place. Yeah, so I was pretty daunting sitting back and trying to imagine the scale of what we're about to do. When we were driving up, we could see everything was kind of coated in this ice and Jason now kind of looking at each other like, oh God. It's 2019. And Xavier Anderson, who's then an honor student doing science. And photographer Jason McQueen, are about to try something that few of us would be going to. We kind of like had to get your mind around the vision of these pair disappearing off into the snow with full snow gear. This is mirrored at hope from the Finnish school of environment and society at the AU. And then these big awe as sticking out of their backpacks and you double take is you go, what are they doing? This hardcore journey, it's going to take months, but even getting to the starting point is touch and go. So it started off with ankle deep snow and we thought, oh, this will be okay, and then after an hour, so it was becoming shin deep. Always thinking beyond the rise that it would start to get kind of less and then towards the end of the day we were kind of in this thyroid stuff. Walking into the source of the Murray was probably one of the physically hottest trips I've done because we were taking like camera equipment and signs equipment and we were taking pack rafts and everything they did for white water as well. But why are we here 5 deep in the snow at the source of the mighty Murray river on narrow country in New South Wales? Well, Jordan Beasley is joining us this week a cadet journalist at the citizen, which is a publication produced by Melbourne university's center for advancing journalism, hey, Jordan. So savory and Jason are taking us on a curious adventure into sound. The goal is to help the Mario river be heard and they're doing this by packing their lives into kayaks for almost three months to capture the sounds along the entire length of the Murray. They're starting from the snow caps of mount kosciuszko and New South Wales, and then they're paddling all the way to the Quran on narrow and Jerry country in South Australia where the Murray meets the sea. I mean, that is over two and a half thousand kilometers. In two kayaks, unbelievable. I mean, there are seriously Intrepid ambitious duo. Yeah, and their mission is ambitious too. So they're planning to tell a story about the river's health in a way we haven't heard it before. And they're doing this by combining song, sound and science. For project menager Meredith, the inspiration starts with the childhood. On a holiday in a houseboat with her family. We need more for the night underneath this lovely patch of bush on the side of the Murray. And in the morning when I woke up, you know, slight green light from all this vegetation. And there was this chorus of pied butcher birds as I found out later. And it was really spellbound by it and was just spellbound by the life that this huge river system brought keep hearing it in my head. So it went. It went something like this. Except it was a chorus, so it was like a round and it's going round and round and round by all these birds. And I was just mesmerized by it. So, you know, the idea behind song and music can sound was probably back as early as that I thought I'd just love to do something with this one day. Meredith also remembers helping her dad as a child. He was doing a master's project that involved collecting salinity in depth ratings from the Murray river. I was always sort of fascinated by all the conversations I was hearing about the hill for the lower system and Adelaide's water supply and then actually seeing this river and wondering, always wondering where it came from. I never really feeling quite sure. The Murray river started its life is just a trickle in kosciuszko national park. It's fed by snow melt that seats from the landscape. It's an image of the married that not many people know. Let's look at the face that they don't know. So it was really important to capture that. As we joined Jason and Xavier on their journey, let's get a sense of where they're heading. The Murray river flows westward all the way along the New South Wales and Victorian border. And then it ducks south through the east of South Australia. In the Mara darling basin, it's part of the traditional lands of more than 40 Aboriginal First Nations. They've maintained a relationship with the river for millennia. And at its source, Jason and Xavier are starting on narrow goat country. Seeing the very top of the Murray, something that stood out, like knowing that that river goes all the way 2590 kilometers away to the ocean. That was a big wow moment. At the start, xaver and Jason have to Bush bash through dense wattle and Euclid. Following the river until the clear mountain water is deep enough to put their kayaks in. Coming out of the national park, causa stops right on the face line. I mean, you go straight in the farmland. The change it's like every other change down the river happened quite subtly, whereas that was just like, oh, I found my now. That's the next few months it feels like you're wanting your way through the Shire of a Lord of the Rings. Jason and Xavier's role in the project is to collect video and the atmospheric sounds of the Murray. You'll hear these throughout the program. Meanwhile, back at the AMU, Meredith hope will be tracking their journey and the health of the Murray in a unique way. When you go for a health check, your doctor might measure your blood pressure, cholesterol, your eye levels. To monitor the river's health, the Mary darling based on authority is constantly measuring things like how much water is flowing at any point. How deep the river is, and how salty it is. That stack of numbers pour into a big database. And you and I might not really make sense. So what if you could turn that data into music? So you try and essentially try to make audible processes and information that are usually inaudible. Turning real world scientific or medical data into sound in this way. It's called sonification. Say this every single day significations used in engineering and physics, medicine, meteorology, so you can get examples such as Geiger counters, clocks, speed alarms, and even oximeters for picking up your pulse rate during medical procedures. But you don't, I guess commonly here, sonification being attached to, say, a river. And that's what really makes this project unique. What the team is creating will help us here the pulse of the river. When you look at a picture or a map of the Mari. Or even drive across a bridge over it. The river can seem static. Doctor Sarah bavis, award a scientist at anus feder school. Hope sonification will help people really understand the rhythms of the river.
A highlight from Using the Bodys Housecleaning Mechanism to Target Undruggable Proteins
"Has a natural cellular recycling machinery known as the ubiquitin proteasome system that breaks down unwanted proteins. Therapeutics is developed a drug discovery platform that exploits this natural biologic process to target disease causing proteins that had been previously considered undruggable using small molecule therapies. We spoke to nello, cofounder, president and CEO of chimera about the company's discovery platform. How it exploits a natural house cleaning mechanism within the body and why this approach could enable the targeting of proteins that previously had been considered beyond the reach of small molecule therapies. Hello, Benny, thanks for the invite. Great to be here. We're going to talk about chimera. It's ability to degrade proteins in a targeted way. And the implications for being able to do this, perhaps we can start with the ubiquitin proteasome system. This is a natural housekeeping process within the body. What's its purpose and how does it work? So it's a great question. First of all, actually the discovery of how the building producing system works was the subject of a Nobel Prize. I believe in 2004. So it's a sign that I said, a tremendous impact on how we understand cell machineries and disease and health can homeostasis. So the way that the system works is by recognizing proteins that are either misfolded or accumulated or they are kind of in the wrong concentration and the ubiquitin system uses this series of protein cascades that start with E three ligases that form complexes with protein of interest and eventually leads them through two proteasomal degradation. So go ahead. You mentioned the E three ligases. These are enzymes. What exactly do they do and how do they work? So each relay cases are, I guess, a class of proteins that again are part of the big within protein system. There is actually about 600 E three ligases that have been characterized. And their role is to recognize these proteins that we're talking about normally usually through a protein protein interaction. So they recognize their protein they bind to it. And then through these spatial proximity arrangement, they bring the rest of the UPS system to this protein that is misregulated. And then they lead to that leads to that protein degradation. So how are you able to exploit these with your platform and what does that accomplish? Yeah, so the beauty of targeted protein degradation, which is the technology that camera uses to generate what we believe will be transformative medicines is to the beauty is the simplicity of the concept. So we just described hopefully somewhat clearly what the ubiquitin protein system does, which again is recognized in protein and degrading them. So what targeted protein degradation does is introducing small molecules. We call them degraders. We call them hedgerow by functional degraders. And the small molecules role is simply to generate an interaction between the ubiquitin proteasome system via binding to an E three ligase.
A highlight from #243 Kevin Systrom: Instagram
"Doom two. Worked at a vinyl record store, then you went to Stanford, turned down mister Mark Zuckerberg and Facebook went to Florence to study photography, those are just some random, beautiful, impossibly brief glimpses into a life. So let me ask again. Can you take me through the origin story of Instagram? Given that context set it up. All right, so we have a fair amount of time. So I'll go into some detail, but basically what I'll say is Instagram started out of a company actually called bourbon. And it was spelled BU BN. And a couple of things were happening at the time. So if we zoom back to 2010, not a lot of people remember what was happening in the dot com world then but checking apps were all the rage. So let's check it out. Goala four square hot potato so I'm at a place I'm gonna tell the world that I'm at this place. That's right. What's the idea behind this kind of app by the way? You know what? I'm going to answer that, but through what Instagram became and why I believe Instagram replaced them. So the whole idea was to share with the world what you were doing, specifically with your Friends, right? But there were all the rage and Foursquare was getting all the press and I remember sitting around saying, hey, I want to build something, but I don't know what I want to build. What if I built a better version of Foursquare? And I asked myself why don't I like Foursquare or how could it be improved? And basically, I sat down and I said, I think that if you have a few extra features, it might be enough. One of which happened to be posting a photo of where you were. There were some others. It turns out that wasn't enough. My cofounder joined, we were going to attack Foursquare and the likes and try to build something interesting. And no one used it, no one cared, because it wasn't enough. It wasn't different enough, right? So one day we were sitting down and we asked ourselves, okay, let's come to Jesus moment. Are we going to do this startup? And if we're going to, we can't do what we're currently doing. We have to switch it up. So what do people love the most? So we sat down and we wrote out three things that we thought people uniquely loved about our product that weren't in other products. Photos happened to be the top one. So sharing a photo of what you were doing where you were at the moment was not something products let you do, really. Facebook was like post an album of your vacation from two weeks ago. Twitter allowed you to post a photo, but their feed was primarily texted and they didn't show the photo in line. Or at least I don't think they did at the time. So even though it seems totally stupid and obvious to us now, at the moment, then posting a photo of what you were doing at the moment was like not a thing. So we decided to go after that because we'd notice that people who used our service, the one thing they happened to like the most was posting a photo. So that was the beginning of Instagram and yes, like we went through when we added filters and there's a bunch of stories around that. But the origin of this was that we were trying to be a check and app realized that no one wanted another checking app. It became a photo sharing app, but one that was much more about what you're doing and where you are. And that's why when I say I think we replaced checking apps, it became a check in via a photo rather than saying your location and then optionally adding a photo. When you were thinking about what people like from where did you get a sense that this is what people like. You said you sat down. We wrote some stuff down on paper, where is that intuition? That seems fundamental to the success of an app like Instagram. Where does that idea? Where does that list of three things come from? Exactly. Only after having studied machine learning now for a couple of years. I have a you have understood yourself. I've started to make connections like we can go into this later, but obviously the connections between machine learning and the human brain, I think are stretched sometimes, right? At the same time, being able to back prop and being able to look at the world try something, figure out how you're wrong, how wrong you are. And then nudge your company and the right direction based on how wrong you are. It's like a fascinating concept, right? And I don't, we didn't know we were doing it at the time, but that's basically what we were doing, right? We put it out to call it a hundred people and you would look at their data, you would say, what are they sharing? What resonates? What doesn't resonate? We think they're going to resonate with X but it turns out they resonate with why. Okay, shift the company towards why. And it turns out if you do that enough quickly enough, you can get to a solution that has product market fit. Most companies fail because they sit there and they don't either they're learning rates too slow, they sit there and they just they're adamant that they're right, even though the data is telling them they're not right. Or they're learning rates too high, and they wildly chase different ideas. And they never actually said on one where they don't groove, right? And I think when we sat down and we wrote out those three ideas, what we were saying is, what are the three possible whether they're local or global maxima in our world, right? That users are telling us they like because they're using the product that way. It was clear people like the photos because that was the thing they were doing. And we just said, okay, what if we just cut out most of the other stuff and focus on that thing? And then it happened to be a multi-billion dollar business and it's that easy, by the way. Yeah. I guess so.
Mandating Vaccines Shouldn't Be a Restaurant Worker's Job
"So a lot of places across the us have faced pushback. Just for requiring masks indoors but a full on vaccine mandate feels even more controversial. Why are these these taking the step. So city leaders and experts are hoping that requiring proof of vaccination to enter restaurants gyms an indoor places will just encourage people to get vaccinated and ultimately stopped the spread of cove in nineteen other countries that have instituted similar requirements for showing vaccination indoors have seen vaccination rates. Go up this happened. In france this happened in italy and even though there was pushed back to these policies a lot of people just found it more convenient to actually get the shot and which city was the first to make this move to impose these requirements. New york city was the first city in the us to make an announcement that they were going to do. Something like this is a miraculous place for literally full of wonders. And if you're vaccinated all that's going to open up to you you'll have the key you can open the door but if you're unvaccinated unfortunately you will not be able to participate many things. That's the point. We're trying to get across so now in new york you basically need to show you've gotten at least one shot to go to an indoor establishment so at the gym and entertainment venue. It's gonna take a while for people in the city to get used to this. So the policy went into effect on august seventeenth. But there's sort of this weird grace period so the enforcement of the policies not gonna start until the middle of september. But you know it's not just new york now. New orleans has vaccine passport program in san francisco put in place a vaccine passport system that started on august twentieth new orleans enforcement for their system actually began last week. It's also worth noting that not all of the. Us cities that are doing this have the same exact requirements. So san francisco is requiring proof of vaccination meaning that you actually have to show evidence that you got both shots. If you're getting a two dose vaccine while new orleans you just need to show that you got one dose or or negative cova test in order to actually get into one of these than us and you know. We should expect more of these requirements. Potentially pop up los angeles is considering adding a mandate as well on these could also change especially as you know kids become eligible to get vaccinated as well right now. These don't apply for people who can actually get the vaccine.
Elizabeth Holmes, From Blood Test to Facing Prison
"In twenty thirteen. Abc news correspondent. Rebecca jarvis was working on a story about high medical costs and we featured a woman who was spending a lot of money on blood tests and after that story ran. Rebecca got a pitch about a new start-up. Hey there's this blood testing company theranos and they can save your viewers a lot of money. She checked it out but couldn't get anyone to independently verify that these theranos blood tests which only used a finger prick and not a traditional vein. Stick we're actually going to be better and cheaper. It was one of those things where This just it. It doesn't fully lineup. it doesn't live up to what it would take for me to even consider covering it as a solution. So rebecca did news story but other reporters did and then shortly after that pitch elizabeth started showing up in all of these places and was very much a celebrity. Elizabeth was elizabeth homes stanford dropout their nose founder and ceo millionaire superstar and media. Darling elizabeth homes left stanford university at the age of nineteen to build a company. A healthcare pioneer is being compared to visionaries like bill gates and steve jobs this morning elizabeth homes is part of the news. Time one hundred list just out. Homes promised to revolutionize blood testing. She was young rich charismatic and seemingly everywhere whenever there's a quote unquote glass ceiling. There's an iron woman rape behind it but the theranos blood testing devices didn't work like they were supposed to. The company was secretly running patient tests on standard commercial machines even as they doctors patients and the media otherwise there nose founder. Elizabeth homes has now officially been indicted on federal wire. Fraud charges the us turning twenty eighteen. The united states filed criminal charges against her and her former. Ceo and boyfriend sunny belt wani next week three years. After she was first indicted homes goes on trial for conspiracy and fraud. She faces up to twenty years in prison and has pleaded not guilty.
You Can't Handle the (Scientific) Truth!
"I am in the very fortunate position of being able to set the scene for tonight's debate and that's actually very easy. Because the scientific truth is forty-two diet nari according to date thought a supercomputer in douglas adams's hitchhikers guide to the galaxy that spent seven and a half million years competing the answer to the ultimate question of life the universe and everything the answer to that question and therefore the ultimate scientific truth is forty two so i mean i think we don russ semi point obvious. Is that often. The truth is not very helpful tight. The ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter. That's mathematical constant. It's a scientific truth. And when it's expressed in decimal form it has an infinite number of decimal places but but the question is actually how are an infinite number of decimal places useful to us an approximation of twenty two seven three point. One pfoa is what we can actually use in practice. We don't need a want the truth. We want something we can apply to achieve what we need to solve problems to build things to ensure the well being of our children so tonight ice with my esteemed colleagues greta and jack we will convince you that the scientific truth is not helpful to humanity particularly now and arguably more than any other time in human history. The truth is not useful for tackling the global challenges that we currently face. Greta will show you how without optimism and hype in our scientific messaging about climate change. People retreat from the truth. They feel disempowered and helpless. Jack will round out argument by showing how the relationship between science and society is changing
SEC Charges Medivation's Former Deal-Making Lead With Insider Trading
"The sec brought charges against a guy who used to work at the company. Meditation which people might recall in two thousand sixteen was acquired by pfizer for. I think something like fourteen billion dollars with the sec. Alleges is not that he insider traded shares of medication or of pfizer. But rather that as soon as he got word that pfizer was going to buy motivation and before that news was public he bought shares are rather he bought options. Whatever the point is he put money on the stock of insight which is another company still exists that was perceived as being a competitor motivation. They both were developing treatments for cancer. And what the sec. Alleges that he bet correctly allegedly that incites share. Price would go up once. The world heard that pfizer was buying motivation because they would perceive that you know the value of these biotech companies is high because a company like pfizer my by them and in fact inside shares did go up and he allegedly made something on the order of one hundred thousand dollars in what the sec describes as illicit profit. Can i ask a question. David because i don't fully understand why the share prices of an unrelated company would go up. You'd think that accompany acquiring a cancer company would mean that other cancer companies in the space no longer have it acquisition partner on the table. Why why did this work. I suppose is why i'm asking. Well you know. I was kind of curious as to whether these charges would stick in part because of that. Because yeah you know. What's alleges that he made this gamble which ended up being correct but one could imagine it going completely the other way. Because as you mentioned if i were a market participant looking at insight you could totally take the other side of that coin and say well now pfizer. Buying inside is completely off the table. So it's actually kind of a little a little bit of magical thinking to think that because visor about motivation the likes of insider more valuable but in this case that was the perception although according to documents inside stock price went up by eight percent. So it's not like he had like a rain. Making investment allegedly again. He has not been
A Procedural Therapy Seeks to Address Type 2 Diabetes
"Thanks for joining us. Thank you so much happy to be. Here we're gonna talk about diabetes your company facto and its efforts to develop a therapeutic procedure to treat the condition. Let's start with type two diabetes. How big a medical problem does it represent today. Type two diabetes. A massive problem for the healthcare system and the scale of that problem looms large because it's growing very very rapidly along with the obesity epidemic. There are about thirty million people with type two diabetes in the united states this year. Twenty twenty one there are going to be approximately fifty million people. The disease in the next fifteen years in the us alone. How well controlled this condition with existing therapies. There are nearly sixty drugs that have been approved to lower blood. Sugar for people with type two diabetes across a range of different classes but more than half of the people with the condition still are not getting good control of their disease and that's measured by a blood sugar measurement called hemoglobin onc- so more than fifty percent of people with type two diabetes have hemoglobin. Anc that is above the normal or acceptable range. Despite all of these drug therapies are available.
Q2-2021 Biotech Earnings, Commercial-Stage Biotech Suffers
"And the first company. I want to talk about is by jin which is a real favorite of mine ticker symbol b. I believe and they're sitting at a fifty billion dollar market cap and what we heard is that they announced q to revenue of two point. Seven eight billion dollars and this is compared to twenty twenty cutie revenue of three point six eight billion so huge decline there and that is mostly due to a decrease in their ms revenue of twenty four percent year over year. And if you remember. When i went through the biogen episode i did. The majority of their revenue comes from their ms franchise and since the lawsuit against by jin was in favor of the generic companies including mylan they have launched generic versions of tech der which are now at risk because by genus filed an appeal. And what this means is that these generic companies are going to be able to sell their generic version of tech era at the risk of biogen winning on appeal in which case Going to be able to litigate against them for patent infringement. So during this time at which we don't know what the status of the appeal is gonna be biden's gonna start losing. Ms franchise market share pretty quickly to these generic companies. So we're starting to see this now with these abysmal. M s numbers now. The company did increase their guidance for the rest of the fiscal year. Only by about two hundred to three hundred million dollars so not a huge amount but they said that. This is due to better-than-expected ms sales. So who knows what's going on there but really the bulk of the call was the excitement around the addy home commercialization efforts and now just to say the amount of home revenue was only like one or two million dollars so very much a drop in the pan not very impressive so far. But it's because all of these infrastructure efforts need to take place in order to get hospitals up and running in order to treat patients
Building a Better Path to Neurotherapeutics
"South. Thanks for joining us right to be here. We're going to talk about her office. The challenges of developing drugs to treat neurologic conditions and offices platform to address those challenges. I think neurologic conditions tend to be an area of some of the hardest targets therapeutically. My sense is this is an area with relatively high failure rates for drug developer's. Why is that is a lack of understanding of the complexity of these conditions. Lack of animal models delivery challenges or is it something else. I think the reason that neurology and psychiatry has categories have have some the lowest Success rates in drug discovery are primarily for two reasons. these are complex conditions of Very complex organ. Not well understood how the brain works and when when things go wrong why why they go wrong so it's complexity of disease and And secondarily i think because of that complexity to develop effective therapies. We might have to take more more sophisticated approaches and it goes through the two two major issues the other issues that you brought up a animal models are certainly more challenged the translate ability of Of behavior between species is hard and and of course There are challenges of getting into the brain but you know to to be fair. Plenty of plenty of drugs do get into the brain. Ruffalo has developed a platform for discovering therapies for neurologic disease. Easing patient derived human models known as organ. Lloyd's what's in organized. And and how do you create them. Yes so org. Annoyed is some kind of a scary science fiction sounding word But you know it happened to. It is the word that the industry in the field has has settled on and It sounds it. Sounds fancy new in in ways it is. It's a new way to culture. Cells typically stem cells typically derived A reprogram from patient samples either blood or fiber blasts
Julie Grant and Sam Blackman on Cancer Drugs for Kids
"Julie grant and sam blackman. Welcome to the long run. Thanks luke thankfully To be talking to you again. It's been a long time. Yeah so Day one biopharmaceuticals. You are trying to chart a new course here in pediatric cancer drug development. Can you start off by telling me like where this came from. What's the origin story of day. One julia you wanna start cher. I i think the origin story of day. One is a lot of serendipity a lot of fortune and i think also A lot of really good people who wanted to make a difference in a group of patients who have been rather overlooked by our industry historically which has children with cancer. And luke. I think back to to some of our conversations not thinking back to two thousand eighteen in before we ran into each other at the biden. Cancer initiatives Conference together. And the way that this really was raised on on my radar was through a a physician. Who at the time was the chair of the children's oncology group Gentleman named peter adamson who at the time was Chop so at a u. penn's pediatric oncology center. And he at these meetings that we were having to try and think about national level. Change for oncology in the united states. He really raised my attention that he he thought that there were medicines that could potentially work for children that were not moving forward because of lack of support from the pharmaceutical industry and that really caught my attention and we had a series of meetings where he educated me along with a woman named susan. Winer who lost. Her child took to cancer in his been a lifelong advocate in in the field and talking to congress about legislation and through that process. I became much more aware of of this. This unmet need in pediatric oncology. And it hit me that it also could create a real opportunity for company. Originally i was thinking it would be a nonprofit that i would be part of but then over time it it really converted into a concept which we can get into as a for profit
Max Liboiron's Anti-Colonial Science
"The moment when i found my first plastic and a cod. I was like lou. I'm so excited. Everything she studies. And then i was like oh no part of a big cosmos. I found contamination like the lifeblood of the province where people don't just leave on the land the land the family. How do i not cause harm by telling people that their lifeblood is contaminated mexico trekking with tons of plastic we use end up in the ecosystems of labrador and newfoundland in canada. That's where she leaves and on a given day you might find mex- peering inside fish guts to say what's inside but actually there's a whole lot more going on if you're dissecting a fish you should be polite to it. You shouldn't treat it like a crappy specimen you should treat it like a relative or at least a formerly living being. If that's not part of your cosmology we got special permission to return the animal guts to the land where we got them as a as a form of respect recognizing that we sort of interrupted cycles by removing something from its environment so we put it back and you can see that from an indigenous cosmology that you return people back to the land or you can see it from zane ecological perspective that nutrient circulation is really important. So fish don't belong incinerators. You can
Taking a Portfolio Approach to Immuno-Oncology
"Thanks for joining us. Hiiumaa very pleased to be here today and to share a little bit more information about my company protons biotech. We're gonna talk about poor taj. It's pipeline of immuno oncology therapies and its business model prior to portas. You're at bsn and involved in the development of some of the first immunotherapy is known as checkpoint inhibitors but hats. We can begin with this general approach. What happens in cancer. And how do these therapies work. Sure are so for many years you're familiarly. When we were treated cancer we would give people toxic chemicals. They would wreak havoc throughout the body with the hopes that you get small amounts to your cancer could slow the growth and some people often complain that the treatment is worse than the disease you know at the early days that be mass We had made the shift to try to boost the immune system to fight cancer. And the reason that. I don't have cancer today. Even though my body develops cancer cells every day is because my immune system Finds those cells. It sees them and then it clears them So the idea being what if we can get everyone's immune system to find the cancer cells and kill them so we started using some. I would say rather broad nonspecific approaches to boost immune system and when the immune system fires At the cancer and it can recognize a cancer cell of healthy. It can clear that cell and it can continue to do that. Typically remainder of people's lives
Marcus Gerald From Patient to Scientist
"Marcus they must remain here so first off. Can you tell me about your current job. Like what kind of research do you do. Sure so. I'm a study director. At charles river labs in horsham pennsylvania. I work specifically in developmental and reproductive toxicology or dart as well as juvenile toxicology and essentially what we test drugs that are developed by different pharmaceutical companies and were determining their safety. So we wanna know one. Are they safe for pregnant. Women women who are currently pregnant and as well as the developing fetus. Are they safe for women who might be nursing. Are they say for men and women who are looking to conceive some or is it safe for children so a company may wanna repurpose job. They currently have in use it for juvenile. We would do the testing to make sure that that can happen to do this. We use several study designs. We have an embryo fetal development studies out. We have fertility studies pre and post-natal studies as well as juvenile toxicity studies. All right do you have like an example of some your work that you can tell us about. Oh sure yeah so we were gone a wide array of drugs from different covert vaccines that came through chelsea. Horses me personally. I worked on a kovic treatment. It was a a drug that was being repurpose from a different disease that they were trying to see if it had any efficacy coverted. We also are working with a wide list of different vaccines as well. As one interesting test article. I recently had was cocaine hydrochloride. And they're trying to determine if it could be used for nasal surgeries as a numbing agent. So it's you know we have cancer drugs we have drugs for note developmental disorders so there are a lot of different drugs that we get to work within. It's very interesting and very fulfilling and the whole
Activating Suites of Plant Genes With Cas9
"When we're talking about gene editing. What are we traditionally speaking about. What will traditionally uh speaking about gene. Editing is more referring to of the dna editing tools such as zinc finger nucleus talim on nowadays crisper cast nine and these tool will go to the genome to modify. Dna letters so that genome editing with talking about. Yes so usually it's what they always referred to. As site specific nucleus is writing. So why is this so powerful. Y'all right kevin if they caught sight specimen nucleus because they can direct mutations various specific to a tailor the dna sequence a user research. Wanna do that. So it's possible because traditionally we do geneticists in random you have to select many mutation many mutants and finally the but with genome editing. You can direct that effort. You save a lot of effort time and resources to achieve the product you want to achieve. Witches admittance so yes for for for listeners. Who are interested in these topics. We've talked about everything from Curing sickle cell anemia using these tools to many innovations in plant. So making very precise deletions indiana that allow a gene to be deactivated or in sst understand what that gene does in. Everybody does this now but your work. They recently reported really turns this entire process upside down. How do you activate genes using crisper. Casts. yeah right so tried to make it he. Here's the we activator. Djing was chris. Podcast is really repurpose. It from a dna cutting scissor to a d. binding grew and then we attached useful things to the grew so then they combine the to the promoter which leading dna sequence ahead of according sepals of gene. Let's say and then that can recruit more proteins which activator so that they contend on the
The Quest for a Covid Pill
"You guys had a great story this week along with nick. Floor co about billy. Done the the regulator kind of at the heart of The helm controversy What did you guys find out about him as you were reporting this. Well what's interesting is we learned quite a bit. Because for anyone. Who's paid attention to this and might have cursorily google billie dunn. You'd find that there's very little information about him on the internet and so that was kind of the mountain that we're gazing up at As we embarked on this because as you mentioned he does seem to have emerged as really the key person at fda Who biogen identified as being you know willing to embrace their read of the very controversial data and that that set in motion the process by which the drug was eventually approved. And i think the narrative around the time of the approval and based on his comments at a public meeting last year was that he was really drinking the kool aid. That this guy you know maybe was kind of a mark for biogen. Maybe kind of went over his skis or listen to closely to patient advocates at the expense of the kind of rigorous view of data that one might expect from the fda. But what. I thought was interesting. Reporting it out and we talked to quite a few people who've worked with him whether add fda or At companies that had been before him or or in patient advocacy groups that have likewise met with him and would almost everybody said was that he built this reputation as a very stern and rigorous regular someone who demanded very clean very compelling data from treatments. That might win approval before even considering them in the sense that it gave him a lot of respect among his colleagues at fda and in some cases it really frustrated or even angered patient advocates. Who thought that you know for diseases like ls for example where there are so few options that he should ease up on that standard and so in those conversations that i think we had our. You can speak to this eventually. You'd get too. So what do you think of the agile. Home approval and people seemed kind of baffled. The a lot of people said like that's not the billy done. I know i remain confused. As to how he was won over by this data set from biogen. When i know him as a person who takes a completely different approach to regulating new drugs.
International Climate & Food
"I'm so hopeful about the food system in the us and around the globe the organization. I work for food. Tank was founded with the mission of highlighting stories of hope and success in the food system. Ultimately we hope to shine a spotlight on the movements and organizations that are creating more environmentally economically and socially just food and agriculture systems the urgency of meeting the sustainable development goals in solving the climate crisis through agreements like the paris agreement is crucial. Especially as we're still facing the impacts of the in nineteen pandemic food bank works at numerous partners in collaborators throughout the united states to highlight food systems best practices and we're so grateful to share some of their work as they strived towards enacting more sustainable agriculture practices preventing food loss and food waste and ensuring abundant health equality and justice within the food system. Let me give you a few examples. In sustainable agriculture there are many organizations working to make farming more sustainable as well as more productive accessible and affordable. The redoubt institute is an independent research institute for organic farming with many projects looking at soil help and land health and one of their projects that thirty year. Long farming systems. Trial is the longest running side by side comparison of organic and chemical agriculture. And they found that organic systems are consistently more resilient and productive than chemical systems. Some other efforts to address sustainability in agriculture in the united states include the north carolina environmental justice network which aims to support communities of color disproportionally impacted by environmental degradation. These projects are essential for addressing sustainable development goals related to healthy and resilient environments that protect both people and planet.
Engineering Life to Reach New Worlds
"Chris thanks for joining us. Thanks so much pleasure to be here. We're gonna talk about your book. The next five hundred years and what it'll take to engineer life to reach beyond earth and allow manta outlived the planet. There's a lot in this book that i think readers might find ethically challenging but the whole framework for the work that discusses begins with an ethical imperative. This has to do with the unavoidable fate of the earth and the responsibility that comes with the awareness of the extinction of life. Up will go with that. Can you explain happy to so yes it. Is you know it starts with a very simple premise. That has i think clear ethical need and then gets into. Well that's true. What does that lead to a lot of interesting questions are but in a nut show we are the only species with awareness of extinction as you just said and you know we are the only ones that can actually prevent extinction for other species. Obviously sometimes we have caused it which is not great perfect track record on this but with the only ones that can service is really know stewards and you know basically shepherds of life not just our own life because at some point the sun will boy the oceans and if we want to survive we'd have to go elsewhere so mars in elsewhere is not plan b. It's just plan a in the long run. All questions are very clear in the lens of a billion years at and then if it's true that means that we if we want to survive ourselves or other creatures as far as the only ones that know that so it's incumbent upon us to serve as the protectors next week protect current species or even to revive extinct species. I talked about in the book because we are the only ones who have this passage unique role universe in a unique responsibility quite literally a duty for our species to all other species.
The Long COVID Doctors
"Let's start with doctor. Amy small in brea back in time so back to october. Twenty twenty. I know it feels like a lifetime ago. Doesn't it gosh. I could go back and speak to myself as a gp prior to all of this. I know that i would have been much better doctor then and i hope to be much. Stop to now. I have seen too many cases on nine of people. Not being heard not being listened to that symptoms in their concerns not being validated. I've seen heartbreaking stories of people just being dismissed of seeing heartbreaking stories of people losing their jobs. And i am very lucky that i have a platform where i can speak up and try and get long recognizes illness long. Covert appears to not discriminate. Healthy people young people people who apparently had mall case of covert nineteen and every sistemi. Nobody's can be affected here the other two doctors you made today. Many of my colleagues have been unwell since march and have really struggled to get any kind of medical inputs until the last couple of months. Those you weren't hospitalized with the illness would just sort of left to get to get on with it. It's the classic thing a suspect. It might even be bloke thing deny it for long enough it will go. I diminish it ignore it. Oh no not another thing to worry about. A suspect always going through people's minds and that will include medics politicians but they will be left with the long term consequences and in terms of the total health burden that will weigh exceed. Whatever acute cove to us.
COVID-19 Detection in Masks and Wearables
"Our guest. Today is dr peter godwin. He's from the institute of biologically inspired engineering. Which sounds like a really cool really cool place to work. Yeah welcome to the podcast newman. Thank you yes so this is really cool. Because anyone who's listening to the podcast understands cove in nineteen the pandemic and many of the health implications that we've seen come from it. How important is early detection in solving a pandemic Well devon. I think that most epidemologists have told as it's an essential part of our toolbox for doing with the spread of a pandemic and especially early on in a pandemic and throughout epidemic that still raging the one that we have right now. You really need to understand where the the virus spreading and quickly it spreading so that you can implement a measures to kind of tamp down that spread such as a social measures as well as technical technology measures such as vaccines Things of that sort. So surveillance is key in Trying to prevent the virus from spreading in so currently were doing tests of this kind of surveillance but how is that being done right now and is that really enough shirts so right now there's two main ways of doing testing for individuals. One is the gold standard and that is something called. Pcr so a pr tests or rtp. Cr test basically takes the virus from an individual sample such as you know nasal swab that we've seen People get and what it does. Amplifies up that genomic signature of the virus. So you're actually looking at the viral genome and you're amplifying it up so that you can test it. Unfortunately this again. This is the gold standard but unfortunately required a laboratory. So you need a you need a technician And it it's it. It takes quite some time for that sample to go to the laboratory laboratory to process the samples and then information back out
Genetic Testing: The New Way to Identify and Train Elite Athletes?
"In twenty thirteen. I spoke with david epstein. A senior writer from sports illustrated covering sports science medicine an olympic sports and the author of the sports gene inside the science of extraordinary athletic performance. I wondered now that we have all these genetic tests does trying out for a high school sport being just having to give a dna sample instead of playing for five practices before your cut. Hopefully not so. We could be doing that. And there is direct to consumer marketing of genetic tests. But the fact is you'd be better off using a stop. Watch to see how good runner your kid is using genetic test. Why tested indirectly when you can test directly but the genetic tests that i actually think could be more useful for high. School teams are for for example. A gene called apo e. Where if you have a certain version we know you're increased risk of brain damage if you suffer concussions while playing football maybe that doesn't mean you should be barred from playing but maybe like to think about other sports or about taking fewer hits practice. So that's the kind of screening. I think that actually could be useful but now having realized how complex genetics is scientists have come up with more innovative methods to find the networks of genes that influence attributes and exercise genetics. Those networks are often not genes that say will you have this athletic trait genes. That say you will profit very rapidly in very much from this type of training more so maybe than your training partner.
Eat These Foods to Boost Brain Health & Reduce Inflammation
"Sean. Welcome back other glad to have year is my pleasure. Always love talking with you man. Let's jump right in. And i wanna talk about top foods for brain health and nutrients. I mean there's so much out there. And i'm sure people come to you for a ton of advice and one of the things that you see especially when people are starting off. They're like which supplement or which thing is the best for that and we tend to overlook some of the most obvious stuff that's right in front of us and i feel like that's what you did a really great job in eat smarter. Is you highlighted the things that it's just easy to overlook and the power of food truly is being medicine not liked medicine but medicine for real right sometimes even better and i want to start off by this study that you mentioned inside of each smarter and it was around alzheimer's and a particular nutrient tell us what that new chain is and how this nutrient was shown to have a significant reversal on our age. Yes so the current size. When we're looking at alzheimer's you know is a really really difficult situation. There's not much as for as peer reviewed evidence on being able to reverse his condition as see much. Improvement is a lot of times. It's trying to slow down the progression but now there's so much evidence coming out in so many wonderful scientists are asking these questions. What can we do. let's try. This thing was try that thing. And the funny thing is is circling back to the world of nutrition. But of course makes sense because your brain is literally made from food and we know today. That alzheimer's is largely tied to this calling. Type three diabetes. This insulin resistance taking place in the brain and so looking at what are the nutrients that help to regulate our insulin response. What a nutrients that help to normalize and he'll brain cells to create neurogenesis and sparked the creation of new brain cells.