Where modern medicine meets technology and innovation. Listen for the latest biotech news on technological innovation, genetic engineering and pharmacology, broadcast on leading talk radio shows and premium podcasts.
Microsoft campus near Seattle will be used to administer COVID-19 vaccine
"Governor Insley announced effective immediately. Any Washington resident age 65 or older can now get the vaccine for covert 19 almost Brian Calvert, with more details as to how the state is going to accomplish this. In his address yesterday, Inslee unveiled plans to open massive vaccination sites across the state, utilizing a syriza of privately owned facilities, including a Redmond campus. That's virtually a ghost town these days. We don't have employees and all of our buildings these days, so we're gonna be working with local hospitals. S so that they can administer their vaccines in a building on our campus. Microsoft's Brad Smith is on board. So is Starbucks CEO Kevin Johnson. We're here to support the governor, Dr Shaw and all of their staffs who are working tirelessly to serve the people of the state of Washington, a vaccine and every coffee shop. Maybe not, But plans aren't final just yet by lowering the vaccination age to 65. More than 1.5 million Washingtonians are now eligible, meaning the state must now create capacity to avoid long lines like we saw last week at a vaccination site in swim.
Applications and Impact of CRISPR/CAS9 in Bioprocessing
"Today. I'm joined by fanling. Wong director of cell line development and protein sciences and zane starkey wolf director of corporate development from wishy biologics. I'm excited to be speaking with both of you. Today about crisper cast nine technology and its possibilities in the discovery and development biopharmaceuticals. We will also conduct a deep dive on its potential impact on bioprocessing and bio manufacturing. Welcome fanling and zane to the podcast. Zinke randy glad to be here. Thank you brandy before we get too far and because of our audience is quite diverse with regards to their experiences in life sciences. Fenland could you please provide some background on. Crisper cast nine as molecular biology. Gene editing tool. Yeah sure so christmas. Nineteen action system is actually adapted from a natural procure arctic defense mechanism to bacteria to simplify. What could spec assistant can do is took leave the face she and i was. It has been incorporated into the bacteria routine on so that to keep the fate from reproducing. Crisper is actually akron stands for clusters servers regularly interspace. Shot had a dramatic repeats and kissed by the most well well-researched variant of the class outcasts nucleus. Which has been used within the gene editing function. So i think the research community have actually adapted this mechanism to revolutionize how we perform the genetic modifications Not only in pro arctic. But or so. You can arctic sales since the system was first published and zane i know from our previous conversations that you were saying that crisper casts has an intriguing origin. Would you be able to elaborate. Yes interesting research can be found on crisper that dates back to the late. Eighty s Other work has been conducted throughout the first decade of the two thousand however it wasn't until two thousand twelve that two pivotal research papers were published in the journal. Science one by jennifer down nov uc berkeley and manual shopping chair of the university of vienna and then another pianist by doctors cross unanimous and sickness at vilnius university. All demonstrating the use of bacterial. Crisper cast nine as simple programmable. Gene editing jewel. But i know that the story doesn't stop there does it no. It certainly does not in less than a year in two thousand thirteen. The labs of dr fung jong and will chong of the burden student. Mit dr george. Church's lab at harvard reported success in adapting. Crisper cast nine for genome editing in your area cells and both mouse and human cells. And i know that we could really spend an entire podcast. Just on the history of crisper so i wanted to stay focused on the technology here. There's been a lot of excitement since discovery about this molecular biology tool. Can you explain why. Sure the remarkable functionality of this tool is that it allows scientists to target specific locations within the genetic code of an organism to cut out or replace a segment of dna due to the high specificity and exactness of utility. The applications have far reaching potential. And it has already become a much to walks game changer. In many fields of life science because it enables efficient cost effective and precision gene. Editing that has a wide utility for development of biological therapeutics including so and gene therapy disease modeling diagnostics agriculture industrial biology and more. And this has me thinking just about alternatives to crisper casts altogether Are there other ways to edit genomes. And if so what makes a crisper cast so much better. Great question brandy many of the other gene editing systems utilize today such as zinc finger. Nicholas's talons the use of mega nick. Liaises or other by all vectors like a. Iv compared with christopher cast nine are in the end very complex and time intensive often requiring many more steps and thus are more costly as well also and this may be greatest benefit. Is that crisper chess. Nine as a low off target affects profile which again makes it an ideal gene. Editing tool justify along with that. I've read many Recent advances using crisper technologies. Could you elaborate a little bit on those. The advances are extensive and continuous. We speak one example includes crisper a crisper i which are techniques to up and down regulate gene expression using dead cast nine dead cast nine removed the nucleus capability of cast nine but still allows for the targeted binding to a double stranded. Dna sequence of interest using the highway. Specific guide are a that is one of the cornerstones of crisper genome editing. I'd like to add that another application. It's a using crisper for hamas directed repel or so called a the are so this technique in simple terms can repel a double stranded. Dna break which is very important for genus ability. But what does the crisper made. Sdr can do is that. It cannot only to repel a break. But or so crew. Eight the break and then replace it with a small mutation or as elijah sequences so this techniques have actually substantially opened ability or researchers to make gino added more quickly and more efficiently
CES 2021: creating experiences during a pandemic
"So just mechanically. What was this your like. As attendees i actually tried to make my version of cas as similar as i could to the las vegas version so in my basement i erected a casino and i slept on the floor and i ate really crappy food. That's what i did not true. Actually none of that is true. But what i did do. I did call in some of the gadgets that were announced at the show. So i would say i. I did get to touch and feel and use some of these gadgets. I focused on covid protection gadgets. That was a big theme of this show. Is all the things we can used to prevent germs from getting on us really. So i tested a smart mass testing some air purifiers. Smart air purifiers a tested. Uv sanitizing gadgets. That was what my experience was like this week. Nicole what about you. I did not touch and feel anything which is very unusual for this time of year if you know any other given year. The first couple of weeks of january. I'm completely exhausted. I've run around the same hotel lobby for like miles and miles zooming between different booths in different shows and this year. I got to cover a cs in my sweatpants from my couch and california which is pretty great. I visited a lot of digital booths. The new cis website is a mixed between like a trade show lincoln and in tech youtube. So you can watch the keynote speeches on your own time and you sort of like visit these web pages and chat with people in the booth but i focused on smart home tech. Most of it can't fit into my apartment even like this one sixteen thousand dollar wellness alexa. Smart tub that. I'm obsessed with that. Produces fog aromatherapy essential oils and all sorts of other luxurious things that we absolutely do not need. Ucs as my like escapist gadget fantasy escape all the news of this week.
Dj vu in Alzheimer's research, and OWS's legacy
"Joe biden is heading to the white house. The us is grappling with an economic crisis and biotech is debating the amyloid hypothesis. Twenty twenty. one is starting off quite a bit like two thousand nine. Thanks in part to ally lilly and some surprising data on a new treatment for alzheimer's disease the biggest story coming out of j. p. morgan this week was news that a lily drug called banana managed to significantly slowed the progression of alzheimer's in small clinical trial. So why this is so notable denham ab like so many failed drugs before it is designed to attack toxic proteins in the brain called amyloid and that was reason enough to reignite the decade plus long argument over whether clearing out amyloid can actually make a difference for patients with alzheimer's disease so before we get into the implications of all that we should summarize what we actually know. Here's what lily disclosed in a study involving two hundred and seventy two patients with early stage alzheimer's those who got to non-arab some of their cognition and function decline. At a rate that was thirty two percent slower than those who got a placebo. The company used a metric called the integrated alzheimer's disease rating scale which we should note is a different measurement than what we've seen in past trials and that's about all the detail we got so far. Lilly said it would present full data at a conference in march. But until then we've only got a press release to go off of so i. I'm curious what you guys think. What are the implications of this. All the caveats that would apply to any alzheimer study. Let alone one this small but it arrives as we await word from the fda on a different Amyloid targeting treatment from biogen called which we spent a lot of time talking about on this podcast and then here comes this lily. News like a comet from the sky. How does this change kind of the state of play of amyloid so to me. This is just it's like deja vu right. it's we sort of fall into into this pattern of just keep recycling. The same arguments about the you know the efficacy of amyloid. Whether you're drugs that target amyloid are effective in alzheimer's and i i don't know what to make of these data. I i mean. I think what it says is that we will be having this debate for years to come. Even after we get a decision on atacama. I totally agree. I mean the sense of deja vu was so strong. I was looking back at articles trying to see what had happened through the years with these drugs targeting beta amyloid and i got back to you know twenty ten. When a lily drug called sima geza stat failed and there was this great npr story actually. Quoting bob langres who at the time was at forbes announced bloomberg my old colleague saying that this was really going to call into question the amyloid hypothesis. This was eleven years ago And we had daybreak on. Cnbc this week to talk with him. He's the ceo of eli lilly. And you know. He was the first one to note. How many failures. They've had in their thirty years of working on alzheimer's disease at the company. I'm focused on on this target One thing he noted that's different about this. Trial is its size. It was small and he said that was the reason he was more optimistic about the signal. They saw that they saw such a strong signal in a small study. Made him feel like it. Had to be an even stronger signal He noted that in the past they had gone to these very large phase three trials because they thought they would have to order to see a signal and here they did this small trial to see if this was even worth pursuing a before going to that big one so i thought that was pretty interesting but i also think we're still arguing over whether amyloid is a cause of alzheimer's or like jeff jonas. The former ceo of sage. Who's still at sage in a different role You know he. He's put it as he thinks. It's more like a scar or a scab where you pull it off. That doesn't fix the underlying wound. And we just don't have those answers yet
Build Your Brain and Burn Fat with Shawn Stevenson
"Sean. Welcome back to the broken. Bring podcast brother. We re just been chitchat. A little bit. I feel like that was a whole podcast and itself like save. Save save save save. Save it for the audience to get into it and we definitely are so many topics to talk about today. And i was thinking as i was preparing for this Interview on my drive up from san diego visiting family. I was thinking. What kind of frame do i want to give this conversation and actually put out a quote that i came across recently from the author james. Nestor he tweeted it once before he wrote this book breath which is really great book. We have on the podcast. When read this quote. And i'm gonna tied into why it's so central to this conversation the first subjects. We're going to get into so this is from albert zafy gory a pri- butcher that a little bit nobel prize winner. 1937 was individual who was responsible for discovering vitamin c as a mechanism inside the body. He says more than sixty years of research on living systems has convinced me that our body is much more nearly perfect than the endless list of ailments suggest its shortcomings are due less to its inborn imperfections then to our abuse it and what i love about. That quote is that. And i posted on instagram this morning. So much of what we think of our body is messing up. Our body is failing us. Our bodies not showing up. How he wanted it to be is much of the by just trying to survive the crazy environment. We've put it in and nothing better describes as inside of your new book. It's smarter than how you introduce the world of fat to us and i'd love to start there so fat loss. Losing fat getting rid of belly fat. It's something that people always think of especially at the time to this. Podcast is coming out. Twenty twenty one. Everybody's like it's a new year. Let me get started. Twenty twenty was a tough one. Takes down the rabbit hole of what we do not understand and get about that. This is so good. And i love that quote so much you know. We're we're in a state where you our system is really focused on malfunction of the human body and not on the grace and the perfection in the beauty of the human body in all the potential you know. An an that's shifting. There's a shift taking place for sure and part of that overall assessment. Because right now we've seen it just run rampant here in the united states. We have about two hundred million citizens who are overweight or obese cry now things populations what three hundred ten. Something they'd it makes no like we can't rationally understand the magnitude of that and right now just shared a study yesterday. That within the next ten years half of the us population will be clinically obese. And we've we've gotten into where we're we're in a battle with fat. We're at war with fad. And i think that the war is a little bit misdirected. And that's wars that something on drugs on everything in that war inherently creates backlash. There's consequences to all of our actions. And i think that there's really just a lack of of well rounded understanding about what fat is because. Here's the the rub. your body. Fat is actually one of the most miraculous important things to your survival into your evolution as a human and so i wanted to start with that premise and kind of dive into fat in. Just open that conversation up because it's evolutionary adaptation that humans have that we've developed over time to be very good at storing fat. Our body fat is there for our survival and it's really really good at doing that. And during times of course we'd experience to our evolution. Where food is scarce. We want that fat to be there to provide a source where we can live to fight another day to see you know scavenger hunt or whatever it is to keep us going and now today however we've gotten we're in a war with this thing that is there for our survival in understanding how miraculous it really isn't so to start at the heart of it. Fat is an first and foremost. And as that's i think a big thing that even people who are in the world of wellness sometimes don't understand it. S just like the way that you would think about the heart. The lungs the brain fat and itself is in oregon. And and when you say it's an organ what are the characteristics of an oregon. That fat has so. This is okay. Psychologically we see fat as like this scattered random droplets of unhappiness at different points of our body right but there there are networks are communities of fat that i talked about in the book and so that i community is storage fats and this is what people are usually trying to target or we're talking about burning fat or getting rid of fat. It's these storage fats. And this goes under the umbrella of these white adipose tissue storage fats and again they're all interconnected and being that it's an organ it creates and produces its own hormones. It has its own receptor sites. It has its own management in cellular communication
Using Computational Discovery to Build Better Immunotherapies
"Team. Thanks for joining us dan. We're gonna talk about immunotherapy compuserve and its efforts to pursue novel targets for ahmed cancer types. Perhaps we can been gin with the idea of checkpoint inhibitors what are they. And how do they work. He'd be taurus. Are actually proteins modulating the immune system responds in the context of fay affair. Kasim yuna therapy. It was identified. There is a crosstalk between immune cells and and the cancer. This crosstalk is being done through immune checkpoint and and usually these are inhibiting the immune system response to the to the cancer to the cancer cells and and the drugs the few drugs that are out there that are dressing these same immune checkpoint skin to treat cancer. Patients are actually am inhibiting. The inhibition exerted by immune checkpoint on the cancer cells in diff- therefore allowing the immune system to be stimulated and actually fight the cancer. This has been a a real revolution in cancer. Care but these still have limited efficacy. How how effective are these therapies at treating cancer today as of today about twenty to thirty percent of the patient population of the cancer patients are responsive to these drugs. It is increasing with time. We're more proven are being done with the current in hebrew tours. But i have to say that you know. Cancer is a movie factoria disease and and it's actually a collection of many different diseases and we're not in a situation where one treatment fits all basically declined immune checkpoint a drugs are addressing only few number drug targets and they're still many mechanisms that need to be a still a explored and and identified and drugs need to be developed in order to address the various mechanisms of action by which the kansas are actually avoiding the immune system. And here's actually that were. Competent fits in and see what we do. Discover new drug targets and developer first in class drugs to address. These struck targets copy. Jen has developed a computational based drug discovery platform. What is the platform. And how does it work. So the platform is is basically based on twenty years a fan and know how that was built at computation with being a computational discovery company for many years and then after we established a critical mass of discovery capabilities. We turn to be to. We are today. Pretty discovery and development company in generale with built computer systems tucson algorithms in order to be able to address the challenge of new drug targets discovery. And you biological halfway discovery. Identify new drug targets is a is a is a very complex isn't f. fourteens. Multiday mentioned effort and for that we had to develop a multiple systems. We've built a lot of know-how in the company and we've built a Expertise in what is called multi onyx analysis. We're not limiting our platform to a specific data type or a specific technology. Actually we're very flexible. Tools and systems an algorithms are really designed to address multiple data sources multiple data technologies and. This is because this is multifactorial and complex and filled to work in. An all of these are augmented with human expertise that we have in the company in the last twenty years. How do the targets. You've discovered differ from the targets that today's checkpoint inhibitors go after and it's very good question. Actually it's not very different in terms of you know still it's checkpoint but i think that the nature of checkpoints one as compared to the others those that are known and those that we discovered these are proteins. That are very different from one. Another so yes all of them. At least those are defined as negative customer tour costing military checkpoints. They're all inhibiting the immune system response against the cancer. But they're doing it in different ways and what we discovered is as i said you know the checkpoints are now have been translated to drugs that are in the market. A really only very few. I think about three or sociology for pd one. Pedia want and what we discovered. Is you know you biological pathways debts allowed us to discover new immune. Checkpoint that are still inhibiting the immune system response against the cancer but in a different way a different mechanism and this allows us to be able to develop hopefully no new treatments solutions. That will address those cancer patients the not responsive to the current checkpoint inhibitors check on earth. What are the issues with. Existing immunotherapy is the ability of cancers to develop resistance. Where are you doing to address that issue so this is actually exactly what we're trying to do. Am that in cancer. Immunotherapy is there are two issues right there. Ease the patients that are not responsive in does that with time that are developing what is called acquired resistance. We're we're trying to do in. The company is to try and focus on those biological pathways that we believe would address those patients that are not responsive to the current checkpoint blockade. So they're in different ways with different. Mechanism does cancers data and actually deliver a different solution to the problem. And this will were trying to work on. You know the leading the leading drug that is in development at is now owning phase one studies and we have owning michel data in the clinic but the days actually am supporting designs behind. We discovered so we discovered a completely new biological pathway identified sen typically that it is addressing am in. You am a new mechanism that still this family of immune checkpoint. The preclinical data suggested that it should address
How to Keep Computers Happy Using Chemistry
"I'm joined today by dr ugo. Sharma from cas which is a division of the american chemical society. Cas specializes in organizing and analyzing publish scientific data that informs researchers through their search platforms such as science finder and has also being used for customers learning analytics applications. I'm also joined by charles river. Scientists dr david clark. Who's a enthusiast together. We will be discussing the role of machine learning and chemistry how we can train computers to support researchers and how he can keep machines happy with high quality data. Welcome ugo and david exe my. Thanks mary me too. So i wanna start by getting our listeners on the same page. Can we discuss the difference between machine learning and true a i in which is really more valuable for chemists realistically sure. Yeah so we're gonna start by defining ai to a is it's really a broad concept refers to machines with intelligence and for the purposes. Here we can define intelligence is the ability to solve a problem so machine learning is actually a component of i. It's has subset and machine. Learning actually enables a system to learn by itself for chemists specifically a is the ultimate goal so using computers to speed up discovery and innovation and machine. Learning is really. What gets the work done here. And especially within applications like drug discovery so essentially you know leveraging computers to and existing data help reduce the available candidates face potential targets and some used to accelerate and reduce costs for drug discovery. This is really where rubber meets the road. And so you know africanus. There's other applications around things like molecular property. Prediction were trying to predict things like solubility melting points. You know all of these things. Leverage machine learning using known molecules in their properties the sort of predict properties for for new molecules that were unsure of other applications around molecule design. So medicinal chemist a lot of time designing new molecules variety of applications and then another sort of hot area right now. For a and chemistry's retro synthesis says basically when you have a given molecule using ai to predict viable pathways to actually synthesize that molecules becoming a pretty key area so for a drug discovery standpoint. David which part of this process is one of the most valuable for chemists like in terms of being able to analyze giant piles of data and come up with something useful. At which point is that the most useful for you a. A human chemist various levels of usefulness. I mean for many years. Chemists have been taking data and deriving predictive models from it in perhaps long before people were thinking of this as i. But i think one of the really breakthrough applications of i that i've seen in recent years has been the so-called de novo design of compounds where and i has been trained on a very large database of known drug molecules and then asked to invent some new truck molecules or truck candidate molecules that resemble What it's been trained in some way up. Put us still different enough to be innovative and useful. So they'll be props molecules that have same types of collectively and fiscal chemical properties up at an unless novel in terms of their chemical structure. So i think it's really those as we've been mentioning taking very large sets of data and bringing new discoveries are of them that you know you just couldn't do that with a a human person. Is that the. The task is too great it so easy for people to get stuck in their own knowledge space. If you like not be able to think outside that whereas the machine has no preconceptions if you like can come up with something that's truly novel. Yeah so the machine theoretically can know every chemical every drug that has been patented the formula for all of them and it can sift through that and find ones that haven't yet been tried but it can do more than that can at ugo it can also predict what kind of chemicals might actually hit a biological target. Yeah exactly so. I think that's sort of a especially with you. Know things that are going on in the world right now around. The pandemic is understanding mechanisms that can produce a specific kind of biological activity like like antivirals inhibiting well replication finding molecules that can sort of work along those pathways in all of this is based on leveraging existing data so using previous research Training up models we can learn relationships between things like structure and activity and then applying those models to new data. Or you know. Maybe drug already been approved to repurpose them as therapeutic agents. Yeah so bringing it back to your company Can you describe what see as does as kind of an elevator pitch sir. Sorta the short version here. So we're a division of the american chemical society being specialize in designing scientific information solutions that help organizations essentially be more efficient by leveraging the work and learnings of other scientists in our recent focus has gone beyond just our products like science finder which mary mentioned before Providing customized services to drive things like enhanced scientific data management increased scientific workflow efficiency are probably most relevant to the discussion here enabling high-value high high-precision initiatives required customized data sets coupled with scientific expertise
The carnivorous woman a saga from Charles Darwin to Wheatbelt Western Australia
"Yes sir dra okay. All over the world spotted another one. Sorry wearies leash. She'll need gone. I have devoted much time to a class of plants that seem to have reversed the regular order of nature and like avengers of kingdom have turned upon animals incarcerating and finally killing them whether the plants are really hungry and entrapped the animals for food or whether it is only an example of the wanton destructiveness of nature. I leave the reader to judge. Mary treat eighteen eighty five throughout history. The gripe botanical artists have often been women but were many of them infect scientists to just without the endorsement of the botanical establishment which often shunned or ignored them. The paintbrush deemed more appropriate tool for a lady than a microscope. I guess botany has always been an interesting one. Because i suppose that the study of flowers and plants historically was maybe seen as a bit more of a suitable pursuit for the women feminine because of flowers and that sort of thing but still it still also quite mild eliminated. I guess in terms of the scholars in that field throughout history. Well one determined woman on a farm in weight belt western. Australia defied the odds and changed. How the world sore australia's incredible carnivorous plants and listen to artists. So with laura skates of botanical scientist doing her phd on carnivorous plants. Right now i am taking you down a bush trial in pursuit of his story. Oh is that it. Oh cute so this is actually one of the climbing ones. That i was just talking about so you sixty centimeters long and it's just spreading out of an embankment. He and a lot more of them seem to have caught prey on this one. I think it might be dresser. Menzies the i ultra ceramic grant though draw sarah makram throw or the bridal rainbow with its little sunlight sticky leaves hence the name sanju. It was a man. English naturalist biologist charles darwin n-i-l-l-a-s who is a first credited with helping us understand that coniferous plants lived off flesh. Here's particularly interested in dresser. There's a european species coatdress harare folio which he did a lot of his experiments on so he would put different things on the leaves like for example. He would put a piece of sand orbit of gloss and not really see any reaction. But if you put something like little piece of aig or some meat juices suddenly the plant would have reaction to that and the tentacles would start to wrap around. So what he basically showed is that these plants are reacting to substances that have not to general protein in them so so the plants i almost instantaneously they know not that'd be the descend concrete that Cheese like an eight that. Yeah exactly so you know. They don't waste any energy wrapping around something. That's not going to be nutritious. They instead wraparound when it's going to be something that will give them a good boost. Trajan i mean even in my phd. Thesis i go right back to dahlan's original studies and some of his original thoughts and ideas of things that with testing to this day and so he really liked the groundwork for the foundation. Full kind of verse plant research but one american woman was on the case of carnivorous plants. Around the same time as darwin. I will give you my observations on draw surra which seemed to have escaped the notice of botanists and she's struck up a correspondence with darwin in a series of letters from eighteen. Seventy one four years before he got to publishing his influential book on insect diverse plants. I had two or three species of these pretty plants growing for window ornaments and soon saw the deal on. The folio was a fly trap of considerable power when it comes to congress plants. One of the women that i kind of came across in my studies was married trait and i came across her. Because he in allen's book insectivores plants. There was a little footnote. That talked about what mary trait had done to contribute to that particular chapter and i thought wow. Who's mrs trait. I want to find out more about him.
The rise and fall of Elizabeth Holmes, the Theranos founder whose federal fraud trial is delayed until 2021
"The pandemic also delayed one of the more anticipated criminal trials. In recent tech history. Elizabeth holmes founder of medical startup fairness was to have her trial began in twenty twenty but the pandemic became a factor and the court would order the trial to be delayed until the spring of twenty twenty one for those who don't know who elizabeth holmes is or what her company theranos did. Here's a super brief rundown homes who idolized silicon valley leaders. Like steve jobs created a company that had the goal of developing a medical device. The device which was projected to be about the size of your typical desktop printer would be able to take a very small blood sample the tiniest little droplet and run hundreds of different analytical tests on that sample within a short time perhaps an hour or two the device would produce a report about that sample giving the user information about their health diagnosing any diseases or conditions and in theory empowering the user and the idea was to democratize medicine in a way that would give users more information about their own health and better to interact with their primary care physician and the medical establishment. Some doctors worried that this would cause people to misinterpret results but it turns out. They didn't really have much to fear because the device never worked properly at least not to the extent that the company wanted it to it turned out the actual process was way more complicated than home. Said i imagined. Enter team of engineers were tackling problem after problem in order to try and make it work in the meantime the allegations against home state that she and her fellow executives purposefully misled investors including using equipment from established blood testing companies to run blood tests while claiming that a theranos device was actually doing all the work the house of cards came crashing down but not before investors had poured more than seven hundred million dollars into it homes is now charged with numerous counts of fraud. And we'll have to wait to see how that all turns out.
COVID-19, Chinas wild wet markets, pangolins, and bats - is it US not THEM?
"And welcome to science friction. Natasha mitchell joining you with a show from our archive that really struck a chord. This past year with you as it became clear we were dealing with a once in a hundred year global pandemic the question on all of alley oops was way the hell did this. Virus come from so today it's pandemics penguins but most of all bets and in fact is us not them. China is the world's factory of consumer goose on manufactured goods similar late. China is also a manufacturer of animal cruelty and eating animals. And now we see virus outbreaks in the last few decades. That are related to animal eat in china. What happens in china. What people do to animals in china howard cassian beyond chinese border. Let's professor deborah brazelle. She'll through of animals in china law and society and we're going to take a closer look at the animals that find themselves in china's wet markets today and into the curious origins of this almighty pandemic. I have to side that. It's beyond anything that i could have imagined. It really is at worst case. Scenario scott as far as i'm concerned and that's from someone who's worked in the area and someone is trying to increase the awareness that this kind of thing would happen happened so rapidly and we seem buying lodge to have been a totally unprepared for hyun field. He's with the health alliance. As their science and policy advisor for china and southeast asia regions a veterinarian and environmental scientist hade knows he's infectious diseases and he's corona viruses. He's international authority on them. Which is why he is quick to discredit conspiracy theories swirling around about the origins of the sars cov two virus. That's caused these covid. Nineteen pandemic one being that. It came from the wuhan institute. Overall aji hayes worked closely alongside. There was a big a lot of discussion about conspiracy theories either about manufactured arses a bio warfare about escapes from large race etc. Truth is stranger than fiction. We we don't need to manufacture this far as it exists in niger. As it is for my scientific point of view that argument that it's a manufactured. Bars has been tightly. Discredited win sars severe acute respiratory syndrome. I appeal in two thousand and two in china hume was part of the international team. That did that hard. Detective work over years to try its origin back to a corona virus in embeds and the team's been serving and identifying bet corona viruses across china since the sars cov two virus is ninety six percents similar genetically to aback corona virus working with siles and with colleagues in china. I had the opportunity to see how intelligent how how technically skilled how ethically principled mark colleagues. And john were humans a signatory to raise it later in the lancet medical journal expressing solidarity with china scientists and concern that conspiracy theories are threatening the rapid open and transparent sharing of data on the covid nineteen outbreak on people. Say yes. But it's the chinese system autocratic. I can be. I know that the principles About those people in that lab at wuhan we'll be working flat out around the clock design manual. It comes with his are going to start from scratch or stop from ears. Point of knowledge sohn's developed diagnostics tried to treatment methodologies. That'd be working flat out getting pulled in every direction trying to get on top of this thing go ahead stop that. Where the virus got. It's real headstart. Perhaps over millennia is in bats and scientists have benches with bats. Have taken him all over the place. You really david. Hyman is professor of infectious disease. Ecology massey university new zealand and. Yeah we've seen people selling hundreds of back carcasses food to yeah people offering jin as a libation biddle offering to the bats in a cave. And there's no doubt about it. That's the gargling but what i want to know. Is why beds in particular. How so many viruses. That are so deadly us and hit not to them and to do that. We need to get denied that better which make up about a fifth of the world's mammalian species the phenomenon mammals actually the the only mammals that truly fly the evolutionary out. They've been around many tens of millions of years and we know that from fossil records basie live live everywhere on earth really apartment thank to new zealand out here hawaii three to arctic so the very well adapted the lots of different spaces and the really good for the environment. So for example. Predation of pests. They prevent crop and forest damage because eighteen insect predators. Such the hugely ecologically important. Certainly the fruit eating bats are great seat. Disperses italy to see lead fruit. The sea passes through the bat schedule and test system than it puts it out in a new location. So that helps maintain. I also pollinate Really important crops. Because of evolved for so long there are many plants for example that rely on best to do the pollination and all the dispersal for them what makes bets such a distinct such prime reservoir for novel viruses that then subsequently crossover and infect other animals and then onto humans. What is it about the life of bets better species so there are many hypotheses one is just the sheer diversity of bats around the world so therefore they have a diverse range of our is and we think that they've been around for a long time to bigly long lived species relatively speaking. I will live for years and tens of years. Not like rodents that live for you know. I think within a year they're gone. They will like humans in cities. I mean they form very dense colonies with thousands in a small space so that's ideal for infection. Spare transmit from one individual to another. You're getting the peach ryan virus heaven and what's more abet colony might contain multiple. Bet spacey's so viruses can adapt in crossover between them heating a
How the Pandemic Transformed a Small Diagnostics Company
"Joining us. Thank you for having me. We're gonna talk about longhorn vaccines and diagnostics. Covert one thousand nine hundred and how the pandemic has transformed your company. My guess is most of our listeners will not be familiar with longhorn which is long been focused on addressing infectious diseases in developing economies. What was longhorn founded to do. And what has its business been through two thousand. Nineteen longhorn was founded to address a coming influenza pandemic We started the company in two thousand and six looking for ways to develop a better diagnostics and vaccine products for preparing for an infectious disease outbreak With the expectation that that coming pandemic would be influenza. We originally had our current diagnostic products available for the two thousand nine. Two thousand ten h one n one o-9 pandemic. We were one of thirteen companies that received an e you way back during that pandemic much compared to the hundreds that have received as during this e way is emergency use authorization. That's correct up until about two nine months ago. I don't think most people knew what that was. I don't think many people in the industry or even at the fda knew what that was. And i think now it's something that has been a critical component to developing tests. And now vaccines for this pandemic. when the covid nineteen pandemic emerged. What were the internal discussions at longhorn. What needs did you see. And what opportunities you think there were for longhorn to address. Well we knew that our product would be on an important product. This pandemic One of the things that we had taken to the us fda in two thousand sixteen was this product that could collect samples and inactivate all of the viruses and bacteria and other pathogens immediately upon collection. So that there was no concern about spreading the virus through The transmission of the tubes and to make it safer for the laboratory people as well so as we saw how infectious virus was and and how much it was putting people in the hospitals and ultimately causing death What we realized was that this was really the moment in time that that this novel product that we created and that the fda had approved two years earlier really this was. It's it's key moment in time and we were surprised that the fda actually reached out to us In january and asked us to begin ramping up production and they wanted to ensure that we also realize that what they saw which was the distribution crucial product in helping expand testing across the country are current diagnostic products available for the two thousand nine two thousand ten h one n one. Oh nine pandemic. We were one of thirteen companies that received e way back during that pandemic much compared to the hundreds that have received e- ways during this. That's correct up until about nine months ago. I don't think most people knew what that was. I don't even think many people in the industry or even at the fda knew what that was. And i think now it's something that has been a critical component to developing tests and now vaccines for This pandemic you've long thought about ways to address issues in emerging economies. You've developed some breakthrough technologies to do just that have these had implications for addressing pandemic in a developed economy as well. Well we knew that our product would be unimportant product for this pandemic One of the things that we had taken to the us fda in two thousand sixteen was this product that could collect samples and inactivate all the viruses and bacteria and other pathogens immediately upon collection. So that there was no concern about spreading the virus through the transmission of the tubes and to make it safer for the laboratory people as well so as we saw how infectious virus was and and how much It was putting people in the hospitals and ultimately causing death What we realized was that this was really the moment in time that that this novel product that we created and that the fda approved two years earlier really this was. It's it's key moment in time. And we were surprised that the fda actually reached out to us in january and asked us to begin ramping up production and they wanted to ensure that we also realize that what they saw which was the distribution crucial product in helping expand
School gate racism, education reclaimed, and family found
"You have caught an enormous something or other dragonfly. It's huge thing. I can't resist innocent and kill it. But i thought maybe we could katie swan and then if we get anymore. Let your guard just alana. Line me i'm a phd. Cantuta university of adelaide so working on parasitic wasps. My mission is to take a bit more of an appreciation awareness of what's around them which these kids have wholeheartedly. Fish-net khanna looking. It's camouflage really like i'm bringing you powerful personal stories from three generations of indigenous. Australians today talking. Racism in classrooms transcending the past triumphantly pushing past the low expectations others can have for you and on knowing who you are but hey this is a science camp. So let's get some of that good stuff out by the river without insect. Nate's i love it. Because when i was little i used to do this in the backyard. Just for the fun of it like we did one And stuff and then done things. We went touch the real big success. That's scary this year. Eleven student catherine. She's from queensland. I've always had an interest in bite of. Because when i was talking about it in school i just found it fascinating. The way things like adapted to the surroundings and how strong some animals off much study in unique. I definitely want medicine like the medicine or science and even in science the medicines. 'cause on sir fascinated about the way humans walk like animals too but mostly humans like al brain the actual in a workings about nerves and system and everything. I just find it so fascinating into the people with knowledge of that. It's just it's mind blowing to me. If you average or strait olander you make up about three percent over strategies population but just under two percent of all students enrolled at university are indigenous. That's growing by around half a percent over the last decade or side when it comes to unique courses in the natural and physical sciences. It and engineering. Less than one percent of students are indigenous for fifty medicine. That's around two point. Four percent and of course completion rights alario. But this camp is about helping to change. It's about road testing university. So my name's malcolm raleigh. I'm an epidemiologist with sorrow food and nutrition and things are about to get very real for the students right now. We're talking about their activities for the rest of the week in particular. Their inquiry is quite a lot of pressure for them. They'll need to spend a lot of their time thinking about the question that they want to investigate for the next few days and then they'll have to be ready to presented by next week. You asking them to do a scientific experiment in two days scientific inquiry that might be an experiment but might be some other activities but in today's yep They'll spend a lot of the allison day. Doing it will be under a lot of pressure. But based on previous years they do a great job so they've got to collect data they definitely have to collect data that to interpret data and to present it. All of those a pressure situation said the pressure is on from pretty much all mice now not quite a couple of days. I think feel it from tomorrow morning. Research can be conceded. A dirty word safe westhead is a young research scientist and regular mentor on these caves. He comes from reggie country new south wales research was something that was dumb on aboriginal people not with aboriginal people and certainly not let by aboriginal people but as we get more aboriginal academics in high positions within the academy. This is where we can start to see a change of the culture so we need young people. All of the students present curious and inquisitive mind and from my perspective. That's all you need to be a scientist. The rest is just learning specific language to arts of the specific questions that you come up with and that's just a process anybody can do that.
Eliminating Security, Privacy, and Regulatory Burdens with Synthetic Data
"Could be used to gain new insight into diseases can be hampered privacy concerns regulatory burdens. And the need to manage. Security risk are among the significant impediments. Syntagma believes it can solve these problems. Through its artificial intelligence technology that creates synthetic data sets designed to muir the statistical properties of real data sets while removing all links to the original patients behind the data we spoke to michael lesch co founder and ceo of integra about the obstacles to data sharing how synthetic data sets are developed and why they might accelerate the pace and lower the cost of research. Michael thanks for joining us life to be here. Thank you for inviting me. We're gonna talk about synthetic data how it can be used in healthcare and your company's integra. Perhaps we can begin with some context before we get into the case for synthetic data. I wanted to talk about a more basic question. Data's all around the world of healthcare were very good at generating but the challenge has been to turn it into actionable information. What have been. The limitations is adequate amounts of data is knowing what data points matters structuring data or or is it a computing issue. Yeah you know i mean. People have said that there's way too much data and not enough information and data is basically stuck in silos throughout the healthcare system in academic medical centers In life science companies. Why is the real issue is patient privacy after remember member that a lot of this data arises from the normal course of care with patients or patients who have been enrolled in a clinical trial and there's an ethical mandate that that data be maintained private so that it's impossible to identify the individuals so privacy is an ethical mandate i mean data sharing is also an ethical mandate so we can make the best use of the information. That's out there to help other people but privacy sort of sit on top of that and that's really the main reason that Data sharing is difficult and actually becoming even more difficult with the right data at the right time. What's the potential to transform healthcare. What's the payoff. That providers payers patients drug developer's. See sure if we had unlimited access to all of the healthcare dave in the healthcare system the diagnoses and treatments debt. Innovators want to develop what happened. Much much much quicker a lot. More researchers would have access to the data and essentially patient. Health would improve much quicker than under the current paradigm. What are the barriers to improving the data landscape as you were just talking about is getting people who hold data to share it out critical. An issue is improving data sharing for us to leverage that data. That's already available. Gosh i mean it's it's really critical. Kobe may be one of the best examples. Where data sharing is not just nice to have but urgent And you know you see it in the newspaper everyday that you know. We can't get access to kobe. Data scientist can't get access. The government is holding onto it Drug companies are holding onto it. And that's a big problem because then the only people who can do research on kobe at the level of individual patients i e precision medicine are the whole of that data so if that data were made more accessible to researchers on a patient by patient level but with a guarantee of privacy that would rapidly accelerate our ability to do basically precision medicine on uncovered patients. What are the barriers to data sharing. And i'm thinking more broadly than just privacy concerns. Although i take it or privacy concerns are a big part of that. Well i mean privacy is certainly one There's something called interoperability. So data exists all over the place in different formats. Differing coating There are efforts there have been efforts for a long time to try to develop more interoperable ways to the data can be mingled and shared on. So that's certainly one and then you know there's just a sense that people who gathered the data feel like they owed the data And that could be a medical center drug company or even just an individual scientists. There's a sense of ownership there and you can understand that Whoever holds that data feels like they put in the effort. But i think we would all benefit all researchers if the data could be shared in a way that maintains privacy and it would make things like interoperability easier because for example we create synthetic data. And we can create synthetic data in eight uniform form so that we can actually help solve the interoperability problem even with synthetic data cool what extent has de identification been able to solve the concerns about privacy over data. Well -cation was sort of added to the hip. Hooray relations The portability a back in the nineties and the idea was you know okay. Certain people need to see this data. Maybe it's billers you know it wasn't necessarily just for research Doctors offices
276 Amazing Products from Algae
"On biotechnology and the good things we can do for people and a planet kevin fulda. I'm a professor podcast host. Who really cares about science communication and wants you to know the current events that are happening in the field of biotechnology. Today we're going to venture into some space that we have not yet ventured into. And i i really feel neglected because one of the coolest organisms in the world in terms of Being kind of at the front edge of a lot of different processes is algae from its potential use in animal feed to its ability to sequester carbon to be able to produce biofuels and many other different products. Algae has been an organism that people have looked at very carefully for quite a few years now. And it's completely inexcusable. That i have not covered here yet so with that in mind. We have an expert. Dr steven mayfield. Who's a professor at the university of california san diego and the director of the california center for lg biotechnology. Welcome to the podcast. Steve thanks for having me kevin. This is great. Because i really appreciate you as a scientist but i really enjoyed all the time. We've gotten the hang out in the last few years and i've learned so much from you. So thank you for doing this. Yeah can i. Can i start podcast by correcting you on something. Sure no you said. We haven't discussed algiere thought too much about algae every single one of us. Every day has an algae product that we use. Guess what that is Let me see day. Algae either agressor ice cream or something will. It could be as goes but it turns out. It's gasoline so one hundred percent of our petroleum is ancient fossil algae. It's not melting dinosaurs. It's not plant. Those became coal. All crude oil comes from algae so every time you drive a car every time you pick up a plastic spoon every time you have touch any chemical. You're touching ancient algae oil. Wow that's really cool. I'd say i was one of those firm believers that. When i was putting gas in the car i was putting in cycads and weird weird old dinosaur plants and that you know where i thought i was doing. Everyone thinks it's melted dinosaurs and in fact all fossil fuel is much older than the dinosaurs. They're only go back about sixty five million years and some of the crude oil that pull out of the ground goes back three hundred and fifty million years. Wow that was only algae back then. It was only algae. Yeah there wasn't any kind of dinosaur or any there weren't there weren't any large or so let let's really start there with the fundamentals and that's a great point that you make and if we were to describe what algae is to somebody what is it in. Why is it an attractive system to harness for the production of useful bio-molecules well so the little liberal definition of it is really simple. It is just aquatic photosynthetic organisms. So it's just plants that live one hundred percent. Water both micro algae. That's the ones. I primarily work with a little tiny guys that you can barely see and then we have macro algae or kelp and both of those fallen algae and the reason they are cool things in the reason we think about him is because they are the most efficient photosynthetic organisms on the planet much more efficient than terrestrial plants like corn or sugarcane etc. And because they dominate the oceans. There's just a lot of stuff that they make that we use you mentioned ice cream. That's just one of them. Sushi the wrapping on sushi nutraceutical. Of course the list goes on and on so you say. They're very efficient photosynthesis. What is it that makes them so efficient. Well so even though we worry about. Climate change now in the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere in fact photosynthesis evolved as when the carbon levels. The co two levels were much higher in the atmosphere than they are today So when cyanobacteria showed up about three and a half billion years ago twenty percent of the atmosphere was co two animals could not live. Not not only us microorganisms. Couldn't live back then. There was no oxygen oxygen. A huge amount of co two cyanobacteria showed up. They turned all of that co two into fixed carbon. That's why we have petroleum and oxygen and once that oxygen became available. Then the rest of the world you know the rest of the animals could show up in survive right. So what does that mean. What that means is that the enzymes that fix carbon evolved had a time when the co two levels were much higher so plants are actually inefficient at the level of co two. We have in the atmosphere today. Four hundred parts per million at one time it was twenty thousand parts per million so believe it or not the enzymes that fix co to do much better at higher. Co two levels. Well in water you can saturate water much higher. Concentrations of co two than four hundred parts per million and that's commonly what happens right. The co two levels are much higher in the oceans. They're hiring aquatic than they are in the air and therefore algae grow. There are more efficient than plants. So it's not that the enzymes are different. It's not that the sunlight is different or any of the rest of the parts of photosynthesis. It's simply that there's higher levels of c o two so they grow faster. Do we see evidence of that in the in reality that as our co two levels go up to four hundred parts per million that were seeing much more algae that the sequestering it yeah unfortunately that doesn't work as well in the oceans because the first thing that happens when you increase co two you acidify the oceans so a long time ago the algae were used to those high acid levels and they did. Well they will again you know. My father was a physicist. He always used to laugh at me when i used to tell them how. Oh look what we're doing to the planet and he would laugh and say yes but you have to remember on a planetary scale what humans do is trivial. Fight we will. Things will evolve to adapt to it and heaves right but in the short term you know we pay a heavy price for that so in the short term unfortunately the ocean acidification is much worse for the corals the algae in the long term they would do better but were you really see this is believe it or not in a greenhouse fill the greenhouse up with eight hundred parts per million instead of four hundred parts per million those flint. Plants will grow much much faster than they do outdoors right and therefore sequester co two. It's just not a practical solution. So what are some good examples of the molecules that are currently being produced by engineered. Algae genetically engineered algae. Let's start without genetically engineered. Algae just regular algae. What what what are they making. That is so useful for us At maybe new industrial scales while the kind of interesting thing is that for whatever reasons and i can't tell you what they are. Algae elected to store their energy in the form of lipids fats and oils. As opposed to carbohydrates so most plants. You know their storage. Some seeds have storage oil soybean canola etcetera most of them corn rye sugarcane. They store their energy and carbohydrates right. Algae stores there's in lipids so the products that we think about our anyone. That are formed from lipids while biofuels are number. One on that a hydrocarbon. You know which is a fuel that comes from lipid. it could come from fatty acid. That's biodiesel could come from is super annoyed. Could come from any of those. So i would say. First and foremost we think about products that are lipid based The biggest selling in terms of dollars that happens to be the omega. Three fatty acids those are lipids to almost a billion dollar a year market now.
Episode 144: Remembering STAT's Sharon Begley
"In the day since sharon's death have been truly countless tributes and remembrances from people who knew her or knew her work. We're gonna hear quite a bit from friends and colleagues here at stat but we figured we'd start with a few words from outside our team. Yeah here's a francis. Collins director of the national institutes of health. I was stunned and saddened to learn of the passing of veteran science writer. Sharon begley known sharon for many years. Back she wrote a brilliant story less than two weeks ago about our work on the use of gene editing to cure the dramatic form premature aging called progeria sharon will long be remembered for making the most complex science stories both exciting and accessible. So i send heartfelt sympathies to her colleagues or friends and her family. And here's adam. Rogers a writer at wired. Who worked with sharon at newsweek back in the nineteen nineties. I think the thing that i remember that at least i tried to learn working with her with few years and working next order her for a few more was to try to have some elegance. Leanness in my writing. Because that's what she did. I still remember her describing a comet
#188: Ask Dhru Anything: Switching Your Career, Tips for Brain Fog, and Supporting Your Immune System
"I actually a lot of people. Don't know in addition to being a podcast host. I have been successful entrepreneur for many years. Now that's actually probably what i'm most known for in my community don't started and sold companies for multi million dollars and so i give some career advice especially for those people who are thinking about becoming a wellness or a health coach. I have a lot to say on that. I also share my thoughts on vaccines. It's a controversial topic. And really underlining messages with the code vaccine being so new if somebody has concerns around it and largely. I think it'll be safe for most people. I've been vaccinated kids in the future. I'm sure all follow and get vaccines for them. But i'll do it in a way that is within the guidelines and sort of lens of functional integrative medicine and functional integrative medicine when it comes to the topic of accedes they are not anti vaccine. They have questions about some vaccines in the ingredients inside. It's called vaccine safety by biz. Farner dr hyman. Who often says bass says just. Because i'm for airline safety and airplanes safety doesn't mean i'm anti airlines so i think there are some early concerns and i mentioned them in the podcast about some of the data out of norway when it comes to the elderly population and their reaction to vaccine and just recently and i have parents who are above the age of seventy and san diego. Just the other day said we're gonna pause on the vaccines and administering them to Especially the older population because of the number of reactions again largely. I believe that the vaccines will be safe for healthy people but again to add that as a caveat kovin is largely healthy young people. So am i rushing to get the vaccine. No i'm lucky in a way quote unquote that the vaccine rollout has taken time. And there's not enough dosages for everyone. And i'm not really super worried about getting covid. I'm being super-safe and making sure that i'm not spreading covert in case if i do get it to people but i'm not rushing to get the vaccine. That's my own personal viewpoint. Remember i am not a doctor. I'm not qualified as an individual. Who's an expert. I just synthesize information. And i interview experts. That are out there. So it's okay for me to have an opinion on the topic and that's what today's podcast is. It's my opinion work with your doctor to balance. And figure it out for you and that's my vaccine disclaimer. Especially because vaccines are so polarizing topic. You're either for them or you're against them. Nobody wants to be nuanced and take nuanced approach. Pa okay that being said. Let's jump into today's episode which is ask me anything here. We go awesome. Alright what's up everyone. This is drew parole here host of the brain podcasts. We're doing an ask me anything series. Hopefully it's a regular one. If i give good questions if i get good questions and i give better answers on my side. You guys will be the judge of that so we have a few folks here that are teed up to ask a question. First of all super appreciated especially as our inaugural. Ask me anything. I'm gonna pass it over to patrick from our team who's going to bring in the first guest and we'll jump right into things. Hey mark drew speed to be here. Fan man tell me a little bit about yourself before we jump in your question where where do you live. And how did you find out about the podcast on from cortez. Colorado therapist it at an agency here and Currently edward doing a supervision thing of return to right after this amazing in your podcast for about About few months. I'm not sure where i heard from from. I think from someone else to the gym actually recommended you in rome ousted since where uncertain it again. I was just saying the best type of marketing word of mouth hearing somewhere else and one more question before you your question. What do you specialize in a therapist in addictions counselor but also went to the school. Coding the rope us. Oh trans personal. Counseling psychology buddhist. Ben done therapy.
Podcast: GMOs = colonialism? CRISPR-edited eggs; sustainable shoes made from fungi
"Kevin fulda professor who cares about science communication. This is the weekly show where we discussed the biggest stories from the genetic literacy project to keep you informed about groundbreaking developments from the worlds of science and medicine and of course help you separate facts from fallacies as you read the headlines. Hey everybody welcome back to the show. Cameron and kevin here kevin. What's going on. How are you having a good time. Back in the classroom and teaching during a pandemic In the room in front of a group of young adults who probably are potential carriers and try not to make them breathe or laugh for fifty minutes so your classroom is a very solemn setting where people quietly there. Yeah but if i do anything for humorous asked them to laugh into their elbow that would make you laugh harder than whatever the joke was so i'd just be giggling into my arm. Yeah it's but you know that's where we are. It's another strange residue of. It's funny because i got everybody's got a mask on and it's in a decent size room. So i and i'm a very socratic teacher and i'll say well you know. What do you think are some of the terminal maternal effects. We may see. And why would that happen because of plastics. In someone go say we're we're we're we're we can't say we're like the industrial strength mask that you can't transmit eat sound through so it fred so anyway we'll figure it out. Yeah yeah well on a little bit of a happier note. I got to see The ultrasound of my baby thirteen weeks along now and it's super it's like nothing else and i probably sounds so cliche saying this but to hear the heartbeat the heartbeat on the screen. It's just mind boggling. So that's really what does it look like it. Looks like Like a sweet potato. Maybe it's i mean it's not that big but you know what i'm saying. It just looks like this like a shrimp issue. Looking sorta sorta human like creature. Who looks like a little shrimp okay. Cool yeah yeah but but alive and kicking in there and it's got a big smile on my face but with that out of the way let's get into Some very interesting science stories for For the day. So i that friendly shoes adidas's developing excuse me adidas. Developing sustainable leather alternative made from fungus and crisper edited eggs. Offer a novel way to eliminate the slaughter of newborn male chicks. and then. finally we're going to talk about this idea that gmo's might be corporate plot to colonize the developing world very controversial very exciting story. That will get into a little bit later. But first step kevin Friendly shoes what's going on here. This is an article by avery. Hartman's and business insider and it was a really confusing article. And that's why. I decided to dig into a little deeper and learn more about what's going on but Adidas is currently going to make shoes from a fungus or so it says right but then it says plant based and so plants are not fungus and funguses not plants. And so i couldn't figure out what the heck was going on with this They are vegan shoes. So sir what are you know whatever that means you get me. You could eat them if you're for your done but there also seem to be kind of an irony of making shoes from fungus you know when you try to keep your feet free of fungus right say. I once bought a pair of shoes at a place called the athlete's foot. And i thought you know that's something weird about that. The jokes for days. No kidding it's like yeah it's exactly but The idea is that there are a couple of companies. One of them called bolt threads. That is making a leather substitute. From the my celia of fungi. So they basically grow these mats of fungus that if you grow them at the right temperature humidity on the right substrate meet these overlapping Like networks of hi fi like the the the vegetative stage of a fungus. So not the mushroom thing that we're thinking of its stuff. That's growing in the ground under our feet. And you're seeing the mushrooms as the reproductive side of that. So all of this like underground network of branching filaments which are made of really interesting Compounds form a really dense. Foamy matt that when treated the right way is almost identical to leather and both dreads they. They've raised one hundred twenty. Three million dollars is a start up. there's all these other people in that space and they think that they can make a product that actually can compete against leather. What i find really interesting. I think might be the most helpful part of a story like this is that it's an example of using technology to solve a problem that has the potential not the potential. It is very political when you start talking about You know using animals to develop products for humans.
Ep85: Luhan Yang on CRISPR editing for organ transplants
"So of the classic challenges including the likelihood that the human immune system will reject a transplant from a pig. If this turns out to be feasible at scale still quite a big if then she. Han could be in position to tackle the shortage of available organs for transplant. The sides transplantation. She hunt is also seeking to leverage. Its gene editing capabilities. To engineer off the shelf allogeneic cell. Therapy's that won't be rejected by the immune system. Luhan is a native of china and one of the leaders in crisper gene editing. She made her name in george church's lab at harvard and was the first author on a landmark paper in science in two thousand thirteen. That was the first demonstration. That crisper could make precise gene edits in cells. She
Episode 21-04 The Ford 150 Pick-Up Truck, or rather Workhorse
"In twenty twelve. I spoke with. Vj swear and then. The china business and finance editor for the economist and the author of need speed and greed have the new rules of innovation can transform businesses propel nations to greatness and tame the world's most wicked problems so i asked him what does the world think are the most wicked problems. And what do you think you know. We've been focused in america at least on the war on terror. Post nine eleven on Fixing capitalism after enron lehman brothers. These are difficult problems in. They deserve our attention. But these aren't novel problems and if we look at Political terrorism's been with us. Read thousand years Capitalism is always in one crisis or another and say you know southsea bubbles. Tulip mania is and so on. So i say let's look in ask what from the perspective of our grandchildren will be judged on. It's how we handle this extraordinary transformation. That's happening in demography in the world is getting much. Older sicker fatter china's getting old before it gets rich. How are we going to pay for this. Alzheimer's could be trillion dollar problem soon enough. That's a wicked problem. The world is urbanized so rapidly in we know the species urbanized as of two years ago. Where more than fifty percents urban china just crossed mark two months ago and within twenty years the figure will be seventy percent globally and growing. What will the megalopolises of the world look like. Will they be brilliant. Energy-efficient ecosystems as a great thinker likes to it brandon magazines them or will be more like the favelas and suburban or urban sprawl that we see in parts of america which is resource intensive and unsustainable. That's megatrend that's wicked problem. And of course there's a golden age of innovation. We're living through the prosperity. The seamy underbelly of that is the hyper connectivity. This leading to a new age of pandemics which your listeners know very well It is a very difficult time to be alive from the perspective of global potential pandemics and superbugs of the best sars. Everybody looking at their plants. Where are they going and dodged a bullet with h one n one and we were not prepared. We're not prepared in our surveillance. Networks in how we think about policy. We weren't prepared with the technology vaccines chicken eggs. For heaven's sake in this day and age is how america does its vaccines. I say that these are wicked. Wicked problems difficult problems. But i want to issue a something of a call to arms. Because i think we can turn adversity into opportunity. If we have a more ambitious more disruptive ultimately more democratic vision of innovation. Now let's get down to the nature of innovation innovation is certainly about creating new products and services. But it's also about creating new ideas new concepts from which we operate new paradigm new views new values. Even that's where. I think your book really texas on some very new territory. Well well thank you. I got so miffed. And i'm an engineer from mit right. So i've been steeped in technology and gadgets and gizmos my whole life. I love all my helpful stuff and all that but guess what innovation is not about technology innovation in my views fundamentally not about invention or patents or ip phd's even though official reports from every government including our own official academies and the chinese vision of indigenous innovation emphasizes metrics and inputs into the process. I- innovation is about fresh thinking which may or may not involve technology that creates value. That value can be for for your customers. If you're a private sector company but it can be for stakeholders if you're a social enterprise employees. There's a vibrant sector with social enterprise. Philanthropy capitalists hybrid business models that are merging to solve difficult problems. It can even be for the for the citizens at large. If you're an innovative arm of government. So i want to shift the conversation from a product and technology focus to looking at. What is the real value created. Anything new and is there value there absolutely. You've been listening to a twenty twelve technician interview with vj. The swearing who is today the us business editor for the economist. His book is needs speed. Ingred how the new rules of innovation can transform businesses propelled nations to greatness and tame the world's most wicked problems. I'm warrior again. This is five minutes.
The Functional Medicine Approach to Heart Disease
"That. Discover the secrets to aging in reverse. I think our team came up with that title. it's called the longevity roadmap docu series. And i couldn't think of a more timely moment in history to pay attention to this. You know. Unfortunately we're in the state of the world where most people who are dying from cova in the current state of the world in the pandemic that were in our individuals who have multiple comb abilities. There are people who have also heart disease or cancer or diabetes or other aspects and that makes their body more susceptible to the virus. And we don't want that for them. We don't want that for anyone. That's out there but to do that. We have to learn how to increase our health span. And that's what the longevity roadmap is all about it's all about increasing our health span last week. We did an introduction to longevity narrated by dr mark hyman he's our narrator and our host for the longevity roadmap today. We're going to do a deep dive into one of the key chronic diseases. That is a big reason. Why so many people are susceptible to the coronavirus and even before the coronavirus is one of the biggest killers in the world. And that's heart disease. There's so much misinformation out there about what causes cardiovascular disease and what doesn't there's so many myths that are out there. that fat is all bad. That sugar has nothing to do with heart disease. And if we don't understand these mitts and pull them apart and see them for what they are. We can't get to the bottom of how to create the best most healthiest heart possible. Which is a big part of living to a ripe old age. So that's what today's episode is all about. The functional medicine approach to heart disease. It's a full sneak. Peek were putting out the full episode for you. We already put out episode one the audio version last week this episode to the full audio version and as as i mentioned last week even if you listen to episode fully here on audio animation version of the episode and the docuseries version which is the video and the audio is fantastic and you can sign up for free at longevity film dot com that's longevity film dot com and on there you can get eight episodes for free starting on january thirteenth january thirteenth. We put out episode one. January fourteenth episode two and so on and so forth episode to as mentioned is all about heart disease and episode three about cancer. The functional medicine approach to cancer from there. We go into hormone balancing with episode four episode five. The functional medicine approach brain health episode. Six eating for longevity and a lot of people will be interested in that episode seven longevity habits and innovative therapies and episode eight. We put it all together with our longevity roadmap a step by step approach that anybody can follow to help improve
275 Targeting Cancers with Gene Editing
"Always good to start the recording. That looks like okay here. We go welcome to the talking biotech. Podcast the weekly podcast about agriculture and medicine with an emphasis on biotechnology. And the good things we can do for people and the planet names kevin polls. I'm a professor and podcast host. And today we're going to talk about the application of gene editing to solve a critical public health problem now as we overcome basic diseases. Things that used to kill people like heart attacks and the monja and other types of communicable disease we start to see the rising incidence of more long-term degenerative diseases things like longterm neurological diseases like alzheimer's and parkinson's but also rise of certain kinds of cancers and probably more an artifact of us living longer and In a in just taking the longer life lending itself to opportunities for these types of long-term diseases there's also a variety of environmental insults over time that have been documented to contribute to different types of cancers. But there's hope on the horizon an all the spectrum of different therapies. That are out there. There's one that recently Caught my eye. And i really was excited to speak to the scientists involved in this project so today we go to tel aviv university in tel aviv. Israel we're speaking with professor. Dan peer welcome to the podcast. Dr pierre thanks for having me yeah. Thank you for joining me. I was so excited to see the story. And i've covered it in other venues and just as a really innovative technique that i think everybody in this podcast will really enjoy so when we talk about This in the popular press. It says everywhere. This is a new alternative to chemotherapy. And so can you tell me a little bit about the cancers that you're working with and are those traditionally difficult to solve with conventional therapies. Yes so basically. We've worked with the gbm with glioma. Which is a brain tumor and with the berry. Griss people variant cancer. These usually are considered to be difficult to solve with conventional chemotherapy. Actually glioma is devastating. Disease bring humor that his highly metastatic spread and very hard to treat mostly because of its location not many alternative with a survival rate off around three percent five years survival rate of about three percent. Cancer is more domestic in that sense but still around. Eighty percent of the patients are being diagnosed the late stage. And that's a major problem and so for us. This is basically proof of concept but we believe it could also be applied to other types of cancers. Okay those are really important. Statistics to understand based upon what you found in your studies so like three percent five year survival rate for glioma and so that just want the audience to kinda grab onto that number. It's very grim prognosis. And so. Yeah in the us. It's about three the incidents about three new cases out of one hundred thousand people which is actually not so little Even more no. I think last year there about twenty thousand new cases in the us. And what are the current approaches. What how do you solve a brain tumor now like this or even deal with late. Stage ovarian cancer so usually surgery is important than there is a in brain tumors there either the asian or type of chemotherapy. Times with logic treatment sometimes without and usually in from the median survival is around fifteen months from diagnose in in yours like this ovarian is more optimistic. But still you know. The majority that are diagnostic. Delayed stage would predominantly survive somewhere around two years. So if you're diagnosed early then you have almost complete recovery but if you're diagnosed late in variant cancer then you have a real problem but your approach is completely different. You're using gene editing to attack the tumor by targeting specific genes that are required for proliferation. Which is really a fundamental basis or fundamental characteristic of cancer cells. And so tell me a little bit about the type of editing. you're using and what genes are targets. So as a proof of crunched soup we chose a gene that is responsible for the proliferation of those types of cancers and. This is something that you know we were. We basically dusted both in in culture in cell lines some primary cells as well so we had the knowledge that this is an important gene and the idea was. Let's cut it out. And if you cut the dna level it will not be expressed anymore so a kind of fat in turn to chemotherapy into beauty is that you don't really have to have another treatment. So these a want to treatments and again it really depends. On how many cells you can reach but when you reach the right cells than you kill them so this is you know with with potentially less side effects for us. This is something which is very very important to improve the quality of life as well as the is well as extending the survival of those patients. Quality of life is is very important. What gene is affected. In what good's it normally do so we start. Good polo nike knows which is the Regulating gene into cycle. It's somewhere between g. Two to m. Mike does this and Basically when we cut this gene there is no preparation. So you block. Basically the sub psycho. The cells would proliferate and just for people who don't know about cell cycle. This is the process of very orderly process that the cell undergoes every time it doubles itself and so to say that it arrests between g two and m means that it makes everything that it needs to make to cells but doesn't go into that division phase. It doesn't go into splitting into two so that this means that all these cells arrest at the edge of splitting. But don't so the so that's why at arrests. But these are all in solid tumors at least two that you described and so how easy is it to deliver this kind of therapy into different.
#139 Dani Shapiro on her Donor Conceived Discovery
"These are experts like genetic counselors researchers doctors authors patient advocates. My guest today is danny shapiro. Who is the author of many books including inheritance which we're going to be chatting about in this episode. Her writing has appeared in publications like the new yorker vogue and the new york times. She's the podcast host of family secrets and fun fact. She's also sarah lawrence alumni stick around till the end of the episode to learn about our giveaway for a copy of inheritance. Thank you so much shapiro for coming on the show. I'm really excited to talk about your book inheritance for those. That haven't read your book. Can you share what the memoirs about sure. So inheritance is actually my tenth book and my fifth memoir crazily enough about four years ago. I sort of recreationally a did a dna test Really was my husband's idea. Kind of went along for the ride and when my results came back they were initially just really confusing. My the breakdown of my ethnicity on ancestry dot com made no sense to me and Step-by-step over a very short period of time. Really just a couple of days i Came to the realization that the dad who raised me had not been my biological father. And that's not something that had ever consciously occurred to me in my entire life and Over the course of believe only a few days. I was able to piece together the entire story of how had come to be on. My parents. were both gone. They're both deceased. My father died when i was Twenty three so he'd been gone a really long time and was an incredibly important figure in my life still is But i was able to unearth or you know sort of discover. I had just enough clues to be able to trace back Based on kind of a couple of hunches and also a a close relative someone showing up as a first cousin on my ancestry dot com page. i was able to find the person who is my biological father and to To piece together the story of what had happened. And so when you first opened these results i mean you must have just been confused at first but also just like shocked of what it could mean. What was that like that experience in your first thoughts when you saw the results like did your mind automatically go to. Maybe one of my parents is in biological relative to mine or like. Where did your mind start going. No it really. Didn't i mean that is such a radical thought to have if it's not something that you've ever thought before that I thought was ancestry. Dot com must have made a mistake. These companies must make mistakes. That can't be true in my You know spit test must have gotten mixed up with somebody else's and Billy it was. It was just when i look back on it now. Incredible denial and sort of innocence in a way. But no it was. It took a couple of steps to get to a place where i Was face to face with the truth. Of what those results meant. And the way that. I was able to do that That listeners might be interested in is well. I thought my parents are gone. I can't ask them I have a half sister from an early marriage of my fathers. Who is fifteen years older than i am. And we weren't in particularly close touch but i had remembered that at the beginning of commercial. Dna testing she had done. She had gotten hurt her She got to twenty twenty three and me and gotten her her. Dna tested Mostly for health reasons. I think she was just. She's also really someone who's an early adopter of all this kind of anything. Anything scientific end I wrote her. And i said. Do you have your results from your test that you did years ago and there is a way very simple way. A site called jet match where two sets of results that are identified only by kit numbers by actual like a stream of numbers can be compared side by side to see how closely are not closely those two People are related and when those results came back. They showed that That she and i were not related. And that was. When i i knew and that is when i felt you know the kind of groundless -ness of shock and you know just being completely stunned to make that discovery because it's not something you had considered earlier in life. I mean when you were using jed match to look at you and your half sisters. dna and comparing the sequences and results there. Was it easy to see that. That was the answer that you weren't biologically related or was it hard to decipher.
Identical Twins: Not Identical?
"Efficacy numbers. To delayed booster shots. I'm phil sansom. And this is naked genetics. A new study has shown that identical twins are not actually identical now. We overby knew that they'd have some differences because everyone's dna mutates throughout their lives. That's why some people get cancer. But those kind of mutations seemed to be restricted to the body and don't get passed on through sperm or eggs now. Though human genetics company decode in iceland have used the genomes of nearly four hundred pairs of twins to show that they often have a few differences that they actually pass onto their kids. Khari stephenson is head of decode. There are certain differences in the genome. Offi identified trims and the rescinded import on this that we always assumed when we are trying to separate effects of the environment from their fact of kinetics that to so be done because twin side danika so finding these mutations change this a little bit there bay in which we can use you down twins for the purpose separating environments the facts from genetic your facts. How is that possible. That identical twins are not identical. Because i thought they they come from the same egg don't they. They come from the shame fertilised back but before when an is fertilized. It divides several times before. They're is beginning of information off Twins and the celta visions can lead to what is called replication narrowed sell bite their genome in the south is duplicated and even though this process of duplication is a very good one. It's not flawless. And we call the floors mutation. So there's an opportunity from you tasteless to take place in what the document in this paper is that they indeed to take place and they have a significant impact on differences between genomes in the trims. When are they taking place. How big is the embryo. At this point it is reddish more around sixteen to twenty so. And how can you tell that this is going on. Were you looking at these embryos at this early stage yourself. No debate in wisconsin. We can do. This is by. She comes the whole genome of the trims of their parents of their children and spouses rican infer. When mutations take place if a mutation happens that he early in the embryo you will find that mutation not only in the children because they have made it into the sales lead to sperms in the mail or excellent team they will also ended up in the party and when a mutation is found both in the body and in the children. We know that at mutation happened before. They're differentiated so it helps you to time. It and the timing is is is so important it comes to battlement. They must also be happening only in one twin as well right for you to get the difference. the saddled that leads to one of the twins may not lead to other in some instances of the twins are developed from the descendants of shame sal. sometimes they're done so different shells and as they are formed from descendants. Different sal than they will harbor different mutations. Is it totally random. Which one of those you get. I think it is very close to being random. Now how do these differences actually get. These differences are not big on average. You will find about five mutations of these short it that differ between com twins. But they can be more than that. So what does that mean for. Twin studies in genetics. You alluded to this earlier. Because geneticists use twins all the time to try and separate out the genetics from the environment for a particular trait or disease or something we should definitely among the people sheikh fronts our whole genomes of both of the team's before we are scribe differences between them to the environment because indeed these mutations that different between them could be the reason that they are different. Does it affect the results. Have twin studies that people have done in the past. It's shoot caution people but they should only affect differences a rare for example when one develops a deceased and the other does not if the deceased is very rare then. We should definitely re-explore whether that doctors explained by mutation but not just environmental effect. Finally i just want to ask. Do you know if these differences between twins ever translate into something visible like you might get two identical twins with something visibly different between them. I am absolutely chef. Does occasionally does because occasionally you'll see differences between down because twins will must be explained by the environment. It's pretty amazing. I think for people to imagine that identical twins are not actually identical. Mona psychotic but not khari stephenson
Episode 143: #JPM21: Dj vu in Alzheimer's research, and OWS's legacy
"Biden is heading to the white house. The us is grappling with an economic crisis and biotech is debating the amyloid hypothesis. Twenty twenty. one is starting off quite a bit like two thousand nine. Thanks in part to ally lilly and some surprising data on a new treatment for alzheimer's disease the biggest story coming out of j. p. morgan this week was news that a lily drug called banana managed to significantly slowed the progression of alzheimer's in small clinical trial. So why this is so notable denham ab like so many failed drugs before it is designed to attack toxic proteins in the brain called amyloid and that was reason enough to reignite the decade plus long argument over whether clearing out amyloid can actually make a difference for patients with alzheimer's disease so before we get into the implications of all that we should summarize what we actually know. Here's what lily disclosed in a study involving two hundred and seventy two patients with early stage alzheimer's those who got to non-arab some of their cognition and function decline. At a rate that was thirty two percent slower than those who got a placebo. The company used a metric called the integrated alzheimer's disease rating scale which we should note is a different measurement than what we've seen in past trials and that's about all the detail we got so far. Lilly said it would present full data at a conference in march. But until then we've only got a press release to go off of so i. I'm curious what you guys think. What are the implications of this. All the caveats that would apply to any alzheimer study. Let alone one this small but it arrives as we await word from the fda on a different Amyloid targeting treatment from biogen called which we spent a lot of time talking about on this podcast and then here comes this lily. News like a comet from the sky. How does this change kind of the state of play of amyloid so to me. This is just it's like deja vu right. it's we sort of fall into into this pattern of just keep recycling. The same arguments about the you know the efficacy of amyloid. Whether you're drugs that target amyloid are effective in alzheimer's and i i don't know what to make of these data. I i mean. I think what it says is that we will be having this debate for years to come. Even after we get a decision on atacama. I totally agree. I mean the sense of deja vu was so strong. I was looking back at articles trying to see what had happened through the years with these drugs targeting beta amyloid and i got back to you know twenty ten. When a lily drug called sima geza stat failed and there was this great npr story actually. Quoting bob langres who at the time was at forbes announced bloomberg my old colleague saying that this was really going to call into question the amyloid hypothesis. This was eleven years ago And we had daybreak on. Cnbc this week to talk with him. He's the ceo of eli lilly. And you know. He was the first one to note. How many failures. They've had in their thirty years of working on alzheimer's disease at the company. I'm focused on on this target One thing he noted that's different about this. Trial is its size. It was small and he said that was the reason he was more optimistic about the signal. They saw that they saw such a strong signal in a small study. Made him feel like it. Had to be an even stronger signal He noted that in the past they had gone to these very large phase three trials because they thought they would have to order to see a signal and here they did this small trial to see if this was even worth pursuing a before going to that big one so i thought that was pretty interesting but i also think we're still arguing over whether amyloid is a cause of alzheimer's or like jeff jonas. The former ceo of sage. Who's still at sage in a different role You know he. He's put it as he thinks. It's more like a scar or a scab where you pull it off. That doesn't fix the underlying wound. And we just don't have those answers yet damian. Doesn't this all sound familiar to you. Aren't these the same kind of arguments that biogen has made. Yeah i mean a sort of counter take on the history of amyloid. I mean the headline is that all the drugs have failed In one way or another but one thing that's been running through it is the way that companies have conducted. Clinical trials has gotten more and more refined so thinking back to solan as mab another Amyloid treatment that has failed multiple times when they were enrolling. That trial. The first face retrial. For so as they didn't really have the technology to make sure that patients had amyloid in their brains so they ended up treating people who biologically wouldn't benefit from the treatment even if it were proven to have an effect on alzheimer's disease and we've slowly just been hiding that downward so the ostensibly positive. Biogen studies enrolled patients. Who really did have amyloid in their brains. And then this lily study that we're talking about today not only did that but also preferentially enrolled patients. Who didn't have high levels of a different protein called tau in their brains. And tau is sort of another can of worms with respect to debate over the role. It plays in the actual sort of pathology of alzheimer's. But i think what we're kind of getting to is something that neurologists have said for many many years. Which is that in the future. The phrase alzheimer's disease will sound quaint. The way that cancer is too big an umbrella term to talk about the many types of cancer. And so maybe i guess i'm looking for a silver lining here. Maybe the going forward effect of this approach is that we will not have a statin like Therapy for all types of what. We consider alzheimer's disease we will have treatments that have proven their benefits in small subsets of patients. Who have you know. High amyloid but low tau and maybe some other biomarker and that is the way that we finally kind of crossed the threshold of getting a disease. Modifying therapy for alzheimer's is by doing it for you. Know ten twenty percent of whatever the population who a certain type of disease in their brain. I want to bring this conversation back to the present. Because i wanted to ask you guys a question about biogen Which obviously we know. We're waiting for that. Fda decision on an academy of it's expected a march seventh may be before seventh There was a report this week. from by a century that janet cock is going to take over as interim fda commissioner the you know this post january twentieth. I wonder meg damian. If you think that that has any impact on what the ultimate decision about at academy of might be well. I think it's such an interesting question. Because of course janet woodcock think it in many ways moved public as a regulator through the Saga with with their first dish. Muscular dystrophy drug and that one was one that the fda's scientist in review felt really strongly Against some of them anyway and an advisory panel actually voted against and it seemed like a janet. Woodcock was the one there that sort of overruled and said we should approve this drug so it does seem like she in some situations is more flexible on things like this. And so in some ways you might think oh while having her. Is the acting commissioner at this time bygones. Alzheimer's drug is up in front of the fda maybe bodes well for biogen's prospects but another way to look at it might be when she's in that sort of Top job she might be less likely to weigh in on a drug review because the fda commissioners typically trying to stay above that From what we've observed you know. Rob calif didn't directly step in. But when he heard from janet woodcock On the syrup decision you know. He took what she recommended and he went with that So you know who knows the answer from me. I'll take the contrary inside of this. I think syrup the ultimately blew up in janet's face. I think that it made her look bad. I think her motives for pushing through the accelerated approval of surreptitious. Drugs was good and actually agreed with it at the time.
#187: A Masterclass on Fasting with Dave Asprey
"Third time together. I appreciate you always being here at drew. I'm happy happy to be able to be here in south here. You know right before you sat down for this interview. You said hey. Can i have thirty seconds. I'm just gonna take a little break to get myself ready. Make lows bresso and before we start off. I just wanna share lower compliment and some thoughts. That i have is being a podcast from one. Podcast does to another. I often don't always get excited. Interviewing people during their press junket circuit where. They're doing back to back podcasts. In a row because the feeling sometimes is okay. Will they give you the same material as somebody else. Can you really make sure that you're having an honest and present conversation. But i want to say all two times that we've interviewed each other Previously you always bring a deep sense of energy and presence to every single interview that i've done with you goes way ed goes a long way and it just makes for a much better conversation for the audience so just wanna acknowledgee for that. I think we're seeing that. I have been trained in corporate america. And when you're going to launch something you have like a set of bullet points that you do and you go through all the stuff. I don't do any of that for for the things that i do. I just ask friends. Hey can i. can i come back on your show. I've got something new and worthwhile doc. About and then it's like whatever comes to mind because spent thousands of hours writing a book. You don't write books to make money because you're per hour rate for book is probably like you. Could i think if i worked in my own coffee shop making coffee my hourly rate with. It's not about the money it's about sharing knowledge that matters so based your questions we'll figure out which knowledge matters and that's the win. People hear it and say this book seems like three great. And if it's not worth reading for you then don't buy it like it's okay. I think that the compliment. That i was sharing with you earlier goes into the central message of also the book because so much of maintaining presence throughout our day regardless of whether or not somebody's running a big company like yourself or whether or not somebody is doing a podcast. We all want to show up our best. We all want to be president. We wanna give love and attention to things in our life that matter the most to us and your book makes a central core argument as fast as being one of those mechanisms. That's there that's there for us so let's start off in the beginning and there's so many people that listen to this podcast that put a lot of attention to what they eat what they don't eat. What supplements they take an even now especially in the last three four five years i think exercise has gotten a lot more loved than it has gotten ever previously. It's still seems though. That fasting is one of those things that even if you believe in it. Even if you've seen the research you hear people talk about it it can be scary to dive into a and permanently integrated into your life. Why do you think that fasting can feel scary to a lot of people. This goes to the core of the book. Because there's maybe half a dozen books on fasting and the the general and i'm happy there are the general point there is don't eat for a while there. I wrote a book on fasting by go. Here's a bunch of studies that say why you shouldn't eat for a while but then you look at the percentage of people who regularly intermittent fast or build fasten their life. It's very small. And so what. I wanted to do to not have another fasting book but something that was was different was to talk about that. Question the psychology of it and it comes down to this algorithm that all life has and. It's something that i i came to understand from. Studying might have controversy deeply from my book on meadow country in the brain which came on your show about and what i realized is there's an algorithm for life. A bacteria has to be able to stay alive forever. So what are the basic things that all life does number one with all of your focus ten times more than anything else. Run away from killer. Hide from scary things. That's fear and you have to do otherwise you've eaten all the time and so plants cover themselves in toxins or spikes or hard shells so that they don't get over eating and animals have defense mechanisms. We use our brains other people or other animals have claws and whatever else so fear is the first thing the second thing that kills. All lifeforms is food. They run out of it then. They starve and the ones who run out of food survive. So a single cell without a big brain has to just basically say don't get eaten and then don't starve to death and the third thing that all have to do is also an f. Word drew so if we have fear we have food. What's the f. Word mate. I was infertility. I okay.